Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management by Opender Koul and Gerrit W. Cuperus

Bibliographic Information:
Title: Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management
Editor: Opender Koul
Gerrit W. Cuperus
Edition: Illustrated
Publisher: CABI Publishing
Length: 475 pages
Size: 2.88 MB
Language: English

Much has been learned over the past decade about implementing effective IPM programmes
in both developed and developing countries. While many pests (insects, weeds, diseases,
etc.) are global, factors such as agroecological, cultural, economic and institutional differences
dictate location-specific, participatory IPM research. However, in recent past more
emphasis has been on ecologically based approaches and there is earnest need to implement
them. IPM programmes that include use of natural, host-specific microbial agents
have been found effective, for instance, in Indonesia, India, and elsewhere in substituting
for chemical pesticides when means for their multiplication and dissemination are appropriately
developed. A critical issue with many biocontrol tools is reducing barriers to their
commercialization. Similarly, host plant resistance is a fundamental component in most
IPM programmes. Fortunately, many breeding programmes in various research institutions
and, in some cases, the private sector are producing material that can be integrated into
IPM programmes. The possibility of materials being developed through genetic engineering
enhances the potential for having host plant resistance as a key IPM strategy.
What is required in an ecologically based IPM (EBIPM) today is to look into the ecological
concepts in relation to the incorporation of biotechnology wherever appropriate
and analyse the policy, regulatory and socio-cultural factors influencing IPM adoption and
impacts. Use of systems modelling along with a major effort to design and implement a
technology transfer plan to achieve broad adoption of IPM practices and strategies is necessary.
Standardized targets, indicators and benchmarks, especially those related to widespread
adoption and impact of ecologically based IPM technologies and systems; need to
be used as measures of programme accomplishments. For reaching the conclusive goals
it is important to know what has been achieved in terms of EBIPM systems, so far and
what needs to be done in the future. We have tried to compile the major aspects of EBIPM
in this volume through 18 chapters emphasizing on the ecology/ecological theory, objectives
of IPM programmes, economic aspects, tactics and examples of programme delivery.
Although we have tried to concentrate on the issues due to limited resources available
for IPM, the prospects are bright as discussed in Chapter 1. Examples of emerging technologies
and issues include biotechnology, precision agriculture and agroecology. The rapidly
increasing computer capacity globally should facilitate the use of systems approach
deployment of improved IPM strategies and tactics with ecological concepts in continuous
crop management systems. Before going into the details of systems it is imperative to know
about the ecology of different pests and Chapters 2 and 3 have comprehensively dealt with
these aspects using agriculture weeds and plant pathogens as the base examples. Chapters
4 and 5 discuss the concept of ecological theory emphasizing on the role of cover crops and
intercropping using the ecological concepts. As the environment is one of the major components
of EBIPM, Chapter 6 deals with the ecological effects of chemical control with an
environmental perspective and subsequently social impacts have been comprehensively
discussed in Chapter 7. Economics plays a major role in the success of ecologically based
pest management programmes. A wide variety of economic analyses of pest management
practices and policies have been conducted since the first assessment of economic thresholds
more than 40 years ago. Many of the analyses have involved projections of profitability,
risk, health and environmental effects, returns to research and implications for public
policies affecting pest management decisions. Especially prevalent have been simple per
acre budget analyses of IPM practices and analyses of factors influencing IPM adoption.
Fewer analyses have addressed aggregate income and environmental/health impacts, and
early dynamic modelling of crop–pest–predator interactions have been slow to develop
into routine analyses. Dynamic analyses are especially important for assessing pesticide
resistance implications of public policies. All these aspects have been discussed comprehensively
in Chapters 8 and 9. Various tactics used in IPM programmes are very important
vis-à-vis the ecological considerations and Chapters 10–13 discuss the concept in detail.
It is critical to understand that the adoption process is not a discrete, dichotomous
event by which one moves from a non-adopter to an adopter by a single decision, but
rather involves a process by which adoption occurs. One of the most basic reasons clientele
adopt new technology is need, i.e. the grower recognizes a problem or need with which
the new technology has potential to provide help. Therefore, programme delivery and dissemination
studies have important role to play in the transfer of EBIPM-based technology
and require in-depth study based on various crops (both preharvest and postharvest) with
specific suggestions for dissemination and delivery. Chapters 14–18 contribute to these
aspects. Although the candidate subject is vast, we have tried our best to bring forth stateof-
the-art information available on EBIPM strategies through this comprehensive volume.
We received tremendous response and support from all the authors for preparing their
chapters in tune with the theme of the book, for which we express our gratitude to them.
We are also thankful to Tim Hardwick, CABI, for his patience and cooperation and help at
various stages of preparation of this volume.
We hope the book will prove useful to all those interested in promoting the cause of
IPM in formal and informal applications in both the developed and developing countries
so that sustainability in agriculture system and the environmental protection for future
generations is achieved.

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