Environmental Impacts of Microbial Insecticides Need and Methods for Risk Assessment by Hokkanen and Hajek



Bibliographic Information:
Title: Environmental Impacts of Microbial Insecticides Need and Methods for Risk Assessment
Editor: Heikki M. T. Hokkanen
Ann E. Hajek
Volume: 1st
Publisher: Springer
Length: 275 pages
Size: 8.45 MB
Language: English



Biological pesticides are increasingly finding therr place in IPM and increasing
numbers of products are making therr way to the marketplace. Particularly in China,
Latin America and Australia, implementation is proceeding on a large scale.
However, in the USA and Europe, registration procedures for insect pathogens to be
used for insect control have been established that requrre low levels of risk, resulting
in costs of retarding the implementation of microbial agents. This book provides a
review of the state of the art of studies on the envrronmental impact of microbial
insecticides. It originates from a Society for Invertebrate Pathology Microbial
Control Division Symposium .. Assessment of envrronmental safety of biological
insecticides", organised in collaboration with the EU-ERBIC research project
(FAIR5-CT97-3489). This symposium was initiated by Heikki Hokkanen and Chris
Lomer, and was held at the SIP Annual Meeting in 2001 in The Netherlands.
The emphasis in this book is on large scale use of microbial agents for insect
control, demonstrating how this use has been proceeding with minimal envrronmental
impact. This book is intended to be of use to regulatory authorities in
determining whether further studies in eertain areas are necessary and how to
conduct them if needed, or whether sufficient information has been collected already
to permit fuH registration of many of these biological control agents.
It must be emphasised that biological control with native and exotic natural
enemies has been practised for more than a century. This activity has resulted in
long-term, economic and environmentally benign solutions to severe arthropod pest,
disease and weed problems. In contrast with chemical control, there is limited
evidence that biological control of insects and mites has resulted in negative
envrronmental or health effects.
However, future biologieal control programmes will need to assess carefully the
potential impact of introduced agents on non-target species and on ecosysteillS as a
whole, in ease ecological effects are subtle. Part of the evaluation should be a benefit
risk analysis of both biological and chemical control. All groups of interest should have
an opportunity to participate in the discussion and to contribute to the decision on
whether or not to release biological control agents, and all should have the opportunity
to be informed on the nature, benefits and risks of biological versus chemical control
options.
A clear pieture of the benefits and risks of biological control is required for
increased implementation of this pest control method. Biological control has
important positive features: it creates independence of the farmer from large ehemical
industries, promotes social cohesion because biological control methods are applicable
everywhere, agents are usually not patented and are relatively easy to produce (do not
demand large industry inputs). Biological control is very applicable for products with
niehe markets, small scale agriculture, specific product agriculture (e.g. eco-products)




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