New Perspectives in Plant-Protection by Ali R. Bandani



Bibliographic Information:
Title: New Perspectives in Plant-Protection 
Editor: Ali R. Bandani
Edition: Illustrated
Publisher: IntechOpen
Length: 258 pages
Size: 4.26 MB
Language: English



Crop losses by pests (insects, diseases and weeds) are as old as plant themselves but
as agriculture are intensified and cropping patterns including the cultivation of high
yielding varieties and hybrids are changing over time the impact of the pests
becoming increasingly important. Approximately less than 1000 insect species
(roughly 600-800 species), 1500 -2000 plant species, numerous fungal, bacterial and
nematode species as well as viruses are considered serious pests in agriculture. If
these pests were not properly controlled, crop yields and their quality would drop,
considerably. In addition production costs as well as food and fiber prices are
increased.
Despite our best efforts, estimation shows that approximately between 30 – 40 % of the
agricultural production are lost due to pest infestation. For example in the USA
(United States of America) overall losses of crop production estimated to be about
37%. These reduced yields are further increased if post-harvest losses by insect and
other pests are considered, so that in some tropical and subtropical countries, where
climate conditions favour the damaging function of pests, over 50% of the yield may
be lost due to pests. Thus, it is not uncommon to find places that presence of an insect
or a pathogen limits or completely inhibits agricultural practices. Moreover, some
insect are vectors of most devastating diseases which afflict plants and even mankind.
The impacts of these diseases transferred by vectors on losses of the crops and human
lives are enormous.
Considerable attempts including agricultural, mechanical, chemical, biological,
biotechnological and IPM (integrated pest management) approaches have been
practiced to mitigate the effect of these pests in agriculture. However, Efficacy of crop
protection practices against plant pests was variable worldwide ranging from a few to
higher than 70%. Thus, the percentage of losses prevented ranged from 30 – 35% in
Central Africa to about 70 % in Northwest Europe. In East Asia, North America and
South Europe efficacy was reported to be about 50-60%. Efficacy of crop protection has
increased in recent years due to the use of selective and effective pesticides, the use of
genetically modified crops especially in North and South America as well in Asia,
where China is the country with the highest amount of land under GMOs (Genetically
modified organisms) culture, and implementation of IPM program and better training
of farmers by governmental and nongovernmental organization (NGOs). Although
acceptable level of pesticide use is appropriate, in some regions inappropriate and
excessive pesticide use (especially insecticide) led to increased pest outbreaks, pest
resistance, secondary pest outbreaks, environment and food contamination. However,
it should be mentioned that pesticide are irreplaceable in some agricultural products at
present since efficacy and reliability of bio-control agents are limited but reliance on
pesticides could be reduced using IPM programs. The current book is going to put
Plant Protection approaches in perspective. Thus, the aim was to put forward new
ideas in order to give scientists up to date knowledge regarding plant protection
strategies. The book is designed in the following 11 chapters:
• Toward Sustainable Pest Control: Back to the Future in Case of Kazakhstan
• Integrated Pest Management in Chickpea
• Honeybee Communication and Pollination
• Managing Threats to the Health of Tree Plantations in Asia
• Toxicity of Aromatic Plants and Their Constituents Against Coleopteran Stored
Products Insect Pests
• Trail Pheromone in Pest Control
• Exploiting Plant Innate Immunity to Protect Crops Against Biotic Stress:
Chitosaccharides as Natural and Suitable Candidates for this Purpose
• Interaction Between Nitrogen and Chemical Plant Protection in Yield Formation
of Cereal Crops
• Advances in Micropropagation of a Highly Important Cassia species- A Review
• Lectins and Their Roles in Pest Control
• Plant Proteinaceous α-Amylase and Proteinase Inhibitors and Their Use in Insect
Pest Control
It is hoped that current book will strengthen the case of plant protection using non
chemical methods.




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