Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods, Vol. 6 by Hajek, R. Glare and Callaghan



Bibliographic Information:
Title: Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods
Editor: Ann E. Hajek
Travis R. Glare
Maureen O’Callaghan
Volume: 6th
Publisher: Springer
Length: 350 pages
Size: 4.43 MB
Language: English




Biological control of pests, weeds, and plant and animal diseases utilising their natural
antagonists is a well-established and rapidly evolving field of science. Despite
its stunning successes world-wide and a steadily growing number of applications,
biological control has remained grossly underexploited. Its untapped potential, however,
represents the best hope to providing lasting, environmentally sound, and socially
acceptable pest management. Such techniques are urgently needed for the
control of an increasing number of problem pests affecting agriculture and forestry,
and to suppress invasive organisms which threaten natural habitats and global biodiversity.
Based on the positive features of biological control, such as its target specificity
and the lack of negative impacts on humans, it is the prime candidate in the search
for reducing dependency on chemical pesticides. Replacement of chemical control
by biological control – even partially as in many IPMprograms – has important positive
but so far neglected socio-economic, humanitarian, environmental and ethical
implications. Change from chemical to biological control substantially con- tributes
to the conservation of natural resources, and results in a considerable reduc- tion of
environmental pollution. It eliminates human exposure to toxic pesticides, improves
sustainability of production systems, and enhances biodiversity. Public demand for
finding solutions based on biological control is the main driving force in the increasing
utilisation of natural enemies for controlling noxious organisms.
This book series is intended to accelerate these developments through exploring the
progress made within the various aspects of biological control, and via documenting
these advances to the benefit of fellowscientists, students, public officials, policymakers,
and the public at large. Each of the books in this series is expected to provide a
comprehensive, authoritative synthesis of the topic, likely to stand the test of time.
One of the main reasons that we organized this edited volume is to increase international
awareness of the growing use of invertebrate pathogens for control and
eradication of invasive arthropods. As the numbers of invasive species continues to
rise, more insect pathologists have been involved with work on their control using
entomopathogens. In fact, this is not a new area of focus for insect pathologists;
work on microbes against invasive arthropods began more than a century ago with
classical biological control introductions of entomopathogenic fungi against invasive
species in the 1890s. Chapters in this book cover entomopathogens that have been
developed for control of invasive species overmany decades (e.g. a nematode against
Sirex noctilio and Bacillus thuringiensis against gypsy moth) while other chapters
focus on development of controlmeasures for very recent invasives (e.g. emerald ash
borer first found in theUS in 2002). Since both theUnited States andNewZealand are
countrieswith abundant trade,which is a key pathway for invasives,we have been very
aware of the growing numbers of invasive pests arriving in our own countries and the
need for control strategies.We have been closely involvedwith their control usingmicrobes,
at varying levels (fromlaboratory bench tofield studies to national committees
evaluating eradication programs using the entomopathogen B. thuringiensis).
Within the past few years, symposia on use of microbes for invasive control
have been organized twice at the annual meetings of the Society of Invertebrate
Pathology (2005 – Anchorage, Alaska, and 2007 – Quebec City, Quebec, Canada),
demonstrating interest in this subject across the international community of invertebrate
pathologists. However, no written summaries, covering the different types
of pathogens being studied, developed and used for control, have previously addressed
this subject. This could be due to the fact that the subject is very diverse,
including programs using very different microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists
and nematodes) in a diversity of contexts: from eradication of new populations of
invasive species, to control of established populations of invasives as well as basic
studies of host/pathogen interactions and epizootiology. Especially for eradication
programs, the lack of written summaries may also relate to the practical focus of
these programs, which are about applied pest control rather than research. We hope
that those working with invasive arthropods will find this book useful as a resource
and that it will serve to support further work on this subject as well as, eventually,

increased use of entomopathogens for control of invasives.




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