Pesticides Evaluation of Environmental Pollution by Hamir S. Rathore and Leo M.L. Nollet

Bibliographic Information:
Title: Pesticides Evaluation of Environmental Pollution
Editor: Hamir S. Rathore
Leo M.L. Nollet
Edition: 1st
Publisher: CRC Press
Length: 644 pages
Size: 17.2 MB
Language: English

The systematic pollution of the environment is one of the biggest hazards that humanity
faces today. People are becoming increasingly aware of the threat posed by pollution and
governments are enacting legislations aimed at protecting the environment. Recognizing
the need for trained technical manpower in this area, many universities and institutions
are increasingly offering courses related to environmental pollution and its control.
Pesticide is a chemical used to control, repel, attract, or kill pests, for example, insects,
weeds, birds, mammals, fish, or microbes that are considered to be a nuisance. It would be
a tough challenge for India and similar developed countries to produce enough food for
the growing population (almost 20 million a year), protect plant, animal, and human health
and at the same time conserve the environment. Green revolution technologies have doubled
the yield of rice and wheat. Green revolution has been made possible only with the
help of agrochemicals, particularly pesticides. Still a considerable quantity of food products
is destroyed because of pests. The process of chemical crop protection is profit-induced
poisoning of the environment. Many surveys have indicated that the pesticide residues in
the environment increase day by day due to their repeated and continuous use. Chronic
exposure to small amounts of residues through consumption of contaminated foodstuffs
may lead to suppression of the immune system, which in turn, may render humans vulnerable
to infectious diseases. Laboratory experiments have indicated that some pesticide
residues may cause carcinogenicity on long exposure. The pesticide residues also exhibit
specific effects on species other than the pests for which they are solely intended. It is also
known that bodies of water, air, birds, and aquatic animals are constantly moving and
transporting poisons from one region of the globe to another. For example, DDT was used
in the fields of East Africa, but in a few months, it was found in the water of the Bay of
Bengal, that is, at a distance of 6000 km away. The magnitude of the threat is considerable
to humans and the environment through either deliberate or ignorant misuse of pesticides
(e.g., using parathion to treat head lice). This threat is considerably greater in developing
countries where there is little awareness of the danger of pesticide use and inadequate
user protection.
However, even in developed countries, users are at considerable risk as a result of the
intensive use of pesticides despite more information of the dangers and widespread user
protection. Pesticide residue problems cannot therefore be regarded as specific only to
developing countries.
Considerable amount of work is being done to develop nonchemical methods of pest
control, but the stage where the use of pesticides can be dispensed with has still not been
reached. There is general consensus that the use of chemical pesticides will continue
in the foreseeable future. Of course, it is possible to minimize the load of pesticide by
selecting or synthesizing suitable compounds that are applied at low dosages. Recently,
some new compounds such as bromine-containing pesticides, thiazole insecticides, Piper
nigrum extract, and phthalamide derivatives, which are biodegradable and possess high
mammalian safety and low residual life and are compatible with nontarget organisms
and allied traits, have been developed. This is a highly encouraging development.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to publish a book dealing with environmental pollution by
pesticides. Keeping in view the importance of this important subject, chapters were invited
from eminent scientists working on different research aspects of pesticides. In this book, the
20 chapters are organized systematically in 9 sections; the chapters discuss pesticide residues
in detail. Section I entitled ‘Biocide’ consists of Chapter 1 on “Uses and Environmental
Pollution of Biocides”. Section II on ‘Transposition and Transport of Pesticides’ has Chapters 2–5,
which discuss “Fate and Transport of Pesticide in the Environment,” “Degradation of
Pesticides,” “Pesticide Degradation in Water,” and “Microbial Remediation of Pesticides.”
Section III entitled ‘Pesticides Residues in the Environment’ discusses “Pesticides Residues in
the Environment,” “Pesticide Residues in the Atmosphere,” “Response of Soil Micro Flora
to Pesticides,” and “Pesticide Residues in Surface Water and Groundwater.” This section
includes Chapters 6–9. Section IV covers ‘Pesticides Residues in Vegetation’ in Chapter 10.
Section V ‘Pesticides Residues in Animals’ comprises 4 chapters; Chapters 11–14 on “Pesticide
Residues in Aquatic Invertebrates,” “Pesticide Residues in Soil Invertebrates,” “Pesticide
Residues in fish,” and “Pesticide Residues in Birds and Mammals.” Section VI, ‘Pesticides
and Men’, consists of three chapters, Chapters 15–17 describe “Pesticide Residues in
Man,” “Pesticides and Skin Diseases in Man,” and “Pesticide Residues in Mother’s Milk.”
Section VII has Chapter 18 on ‘Pesticides and Food’, gives details of “Pesticide Residues in
Milk and Milk Products” Section VIII is also Chapter 19 which describes “Biopesticides.”
The last Section IX covers “Endocrine-Disrupting Pesticides” in Chapter 20

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