Encyclopedia of applied psychology, 1 ed. by Charles D. Spielberger



Bibliographic Information:
Title: Encyclopedia of applied psychology, 1 ed. by Charles D. Spielberger
Editor: Charles D. Spielberger
Edition: 1
Publisher: Elsevier Science (E)
Length: 2354 pages
Size: 14.48 MB
Language: English
Format: .pdf

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Table of Contents:
Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology......Page 1
Editor-in-Chief, Page i......Page 2
Editorial Advisors, Page iii......Page 3
Section Editors, Page iv......Page 4
Preface, Page xxi......Page 5
LinkToy : )~......Page 0
Glossary......Page 7
School Readiness......Page 8
Academic, Instructional, and Motivational Reasons......Page 9
Early Intervention Programs......Page 10
Preventing School Failure in the Elementary Grades......Page 11
Conclusion......Page 12
Further Reading......Page 13
Overview......Page 14
Selecting Academic Interventions......Page 15
Implementing Academic Interventions......Page 18
Curriculum-Based Assessment......Page 20
Interventions to Improve Reading Performance......Page 21
Reciprocal Peer Tutoring......Page 22
School-Home Notes......Page 23
Further Reading......Page 24
Why Is It Important to Understand Accidents?......Page 25
Applied Psychology and Accidents......Page 26
Why Do Accidents Happen?......Page 27
Interventions, New Technology, and Future Developments......Page 28
Further Reading......Page 29
Glossary......Page 30
Acculturation Concept......Page 31
Acculturation Contexts......Page 32
Acculturation Strategies......Page 33
Acculturative Stress......Page 34
Adaptation......Page 35
Further Reading......Page 36
Introduction......Page 38
Current Perspectives......Page 39
Promoting Achievement Motivation......Page 42
Further Reading......Page 43
Glossary......Page 44
Definitions and Examples......Page 45
Types of Achievement Tests......Page 46
Evaluating Achievement Tests......Page 47
Further Reading......Page 49
Approaches to Culture in the Context of Advertising and Consumer Behavior......Page 50
Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Orientations......Page 51
Salient Self-Construal......Page 52
Factors That Covary with Culture......Page 53
Further Reading......Page 54
Introduction......Page 55
Contemporary Perspectives......Page 56
Exposure......Page 57
Interpretation......Page 58
Short- and Long-Term Memory......Page 59
Low- and High-Involvement Learning......Page 60
The Structure of Attitudes......Page 61
Functions of Attitudes......Page 63
Persuasion......Page 64
Dual-Process Theories......Page 65
Further Reading......Page 66
Glossary......Page 67
Legal Definitions......Page 68
Target Groups......Page 69
Affirmative Action and Stigmatization......Page 70
Target Group Members' Anticipation of Stigmatization......Page 71
Attitudes toward Affirmative Action......Page 72
Individual Difference Variables......Page 73
Opinion Variables......Page 74
Political Orientation......Page 75
Comparison among Theories......Page 76
Self-Interest (Personal and Collective)......Page 77
Conclusions......Page 78
Further Reading......Page 79
Glossary......Page 80
The Changing Nature of Aging in America......Page 81
Socioeconomic Status......Page 82
Work and Retirement......Page 83
Sources and Types of Informal Support/Care......Page 84
Receiving Care......Page 85
Importance of Perceived Control to Physical and Mental Health Outcomes......Page 86
Burden, Stress, Depression as a Result of Providing Care......Page 87
Spouse Caregiver......Page 88
Racial and Ethnic Minority Elderly as a Resource......Page 89
Conclusions......Page 90
Further Reading......Page 91
Culture and Aggression: Contexts for Exercising Coercive Control......Page 92
Culture as Contexts for Influence......Page 93
Waging War and Internal Political Violence......Page 94
Social Psychological Mechanisms......Page 95
Culture and Studies of Aggression in Individuals......Page 97
Further Reading......Page 99
Glossary......Page 100
Legal Frameworks for Aging and Competency......Page 101
Consequences of Guardianship......Page 102
Financial Management......Page 103
Further Reading......Page 104
Introduction......Page 105
Aging, Culture, and Families......Page 106
Cultural Diversity and Aging......Page 107
Cultural Influences on the Health of Aging People......Page 108
Further Reading......Page 109
Extent and Cost of Medication Nonadherence in the Elderly......Page 111
Adherence: A Complex Cognitive Task......Page 112
Knowledge, Beliefs, and Communication: Age-Related Changes and Effects on Adherence......Page 113
Measuring Adherence: A Difficult Challenge......Page 114
Further Reading......Page 115
Describing Agreeableness: What Is It?......Page 117
External Correlates: What Is Agreeableness Related To?......Page 118
Etiology/Antecedents: Where Does Agreeableness Come From?......Page 119
Conclusion......Page 120
Further Reading......Page 121
Who Becomes Alcoholic?......Page 122
Syndromes......Page 123
Psychiatric and Medical Complications......Page 124
Long-Term Recovery from Alcoholism......Page 125
Further Reading......Page 126
Introduction......Page 127
The Contribution of Patient H.M.......Page 128
Anterograde Amnesia......Page 129
Repetition Priming......Page 130
Anoxia......Page 131
Stroke......Page 132
Declarative Memory......Page 133
Approaches to Treatment of Amnesic Disorders......Page 134
Further Reading......Page 136
Introduction......Page 137
Traditional Theoretical Perspectives on the Anxiety-Performance Relationship......Page 138
The IZOF Model......Page 139
Interindividual Variability in Optimal Anxiety......Page 140
Impact of Optimal Anxiety on Performance......Page 141
Further Reading......Page 142
Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults......Page 143
Comorbidity......Page 144
Assessment......Page 145
Psychosocial Treatment of Late-Life Panic Disorder......Page 146
Assessment and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder......Page 147
Assessment and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder......Page 148
Issues Related to Anxiety Secondary to a Medical Condition......Page 149
Further Reading......Page 150
Introduction......Page 153
Drive Theory......Page 154
Inverted-U Hypothesis......Page 155
Newer Theories......Page 156
Effects of Arousal on Athletic Performance......Page 157
Further Reading......Page 158
Concept......Page 160
Theoretical Perspectives......Page 161
Medical......Page 163
Psychodynamic......Page 164
Constructivist......Page 165
Interview......Page 166
Self-reports......Page 167
The Process of Assessment, Treatment, and Evaluation......Page 169
Conclusions......Page 170
Further Reading......Page 172
Introduction......Page 174
Interviews......Page 175
Behavioral Observation......Page 176
Formal Assessment Versus Informal Assessment......Page 177
History and Current Assessment Tools (North American)......Page 178
16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)......Page 179
Competition Reflections......Page 180
Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT)......Page 181
Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT)......Page 182
Response Sets and Styles......Page 183
Future Directions......Page 184
Further Reading......Page 187
Glossary......Page 188
John Bowlby (1907-1990)......Page 189
Procedure......Page 190
The Attachment Q-Sort......Page 191
Assessing Adult Attachment Representations......Page 192
Parental Caregiving Behavior......Page 193
Child Temperament......Page 194
Attachment Throughout the Life Span: Stability and Change......Page 195
Cognitive Development......Page 196
Enhancing Parental Sensitivity......Page 197
See Also the Following Articles......Page 198
Further Reading......Page 199
Historical Context......Page 200
Gross Characteristics of Attention......Page 201
Attention and Perception......Page 202
Substrates of Attentional Networks......Page 203
Further Reading......Page 205
Glossary......Page 206
‘‘Attention’’ and ‘‘Concentration’’ in Sport......Page 207
Performance Goal Setting......Page 208
Trigger Words......Page 209
New Directions in Research on Concentration Skills Training......Page 210
Further Reading......Page 211
Description and Definition of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder......Page 212
Intervening at the Point of Performance......Page 213
Using Multiple Intervention Agents......Page 214
Teacher-Mediated Strategies......Page 215
Computer-Assisted Interventions......Page 216
Parent-Mediated Interventions......Page 217
Intervention Considerations for Secondary School-Aged Students......Page 218
Further Reading......Page 219
Core Characteristics of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder......Page 221
ADHD with Other Disorders......Page 222
Etiology of ADHD......Page 223
ADHD During Adolescence......Page 224
Other Evidence-Based Interventions......Page 225
Risk and Resiliency Factors that Affect ADHD......Page 226
Further Reading......Page 227
Glossary......Page 228
The Historical Problem: Attitudes Did Not Predict Behaviors......Page 229
Principle of Correspondence......Page 230
Attitudes Toward Objects or Behaviors and Behavioral Categories......Page 231
Open Attitude Measures......Page 232
Implicit Attitude Measures......Page 233
Direct and Indirect Attitude Measures......Page 234
The Separate Measurement of Attitudes and Subjective Norms......Page 235
Consumer Applications......Page 236
Conclusion......Page 237
Further Reading......Page 238
Introduction......Page 239
The Tripartite Model of Attitudes......Page 240
Attitude Strength......Page 241
Attitude Change......Page 242
Further Reading......Page 243
Historical Background......Page 244
Concept of the Authoritarian Personality......Page 245
Similar Contemporary Concepts......Page 246
Consequences......Page 247
Further Reading......Page 248
Definition and Diagnosis......Page 249
Psychological Processes......Page 250
Course and Prognosis......Page 251
Further Reading......Page 252
History......Page 258
Sources of Basic Principles and Theoretical Approaches......Page 259
Automation and Human-Machine Interfaces......Page 260
Occupations and Employment......Page 261
Further Reading......Page 262
Glossary......Page 263
Rationale for School-Based Assessment......Page 264
Traditional Assessment......Page 265
Functional Behavioral Assessment......Page 267
Interviews......Page 266
Rating Scales......Page 268
Legal and Ethical Issues......Page 269
Further Reading......Page 271
Glossary......Page 272
Depression and Health in Older Adults......Page 273
Behavioral Sleep Medicine and Aging......Page 274
Stimulus Control......Page 275
Behavioral Medicine Issues in the Frail Old......Page 276
Further Reading......Page 277
General Methods of Behavioral Observation......Page 278
Coding Schemes......Page 279
Summarizing Behavioral Observation Data......Page 280
Reliability and Validity of Behavioral Observation......Page 281
Further Reading......Page 282
Introduction......Page 283
Psychophysical Model......Page 284
Measuring Boredom......Page 285
Consequences of Boredom at Work......Page 286
Work Environment Interventions to Prevent and/or Alleviate Boredom at Work......Page 287
Further Reading......Page 288
Introduction......Page 289
How Common Is Bullying on School Campuses?......Page 290
What Are the Effects?......Page 291
Classroom-Level Responses......Page 292
The Special Role of Bystanders......Page 293
See Also the Following Articles......Page 294
Further Reading......Page 295
The Evolution of the Definition......Page 296
Theories of Career Development......Page 297
Further Reading......Page 298
Glossary......Page 299
Cheating and Validity......Page 300
Detecting Cheating......Page 301
Preventing Cheating......Page 302
Further Reading......Page 303
Introduction......Page 304
The Context of Sport......Page 305
What Is Cheating?......Page 306
The Motivation to Cheat: Achievement Goals as a Determinant of Moral Action......Page 307
Dispositional Achievement Goals......Page 308
Perceived Motivational Climate and Determinants of Cheating......Page 310
What Can We Do about Cheating?......Page 312
Further Reading......Page 313
Psychology’s Contribution to Understanding Best Interests......Page 314
Psychological Assessment: What Can We Measure?......Page 315
Dancing with Attorneys without Tripping......Page 317
Following the Rainbow......Page 318
Further Reading......Page 319
Study of Child Development in Psychology......Page 320
Life Stages and Culture......Page 321
Development in Context......Page 322
The Value of Children and Family as Developmental Niche......Page 323
Development of Competence......Page 324
Cognitive Development: Piaget and Vygotsky......Page 325
Nature-Nurture Debate and Plasticity......Page 326
Developmental Norms......Page 327
Problems in Development......Page 328
Further Reading......Page 329
Glossary......Page 330
To-Be-Remembered Event Characteristics......Page 331
Interview Characteristics......Page 332
Children’s Involvement in the Legal System......Page 333
Conclusions......Page 334
Further Reading......Page 335
From Pavlov to the Present......Page 336
Basic Conditioning Procedure......Page 337
What Influences Classical Conditioning?......Page 338
Clinical Treatment......Page 339
Further Reading......Page 340
Differential Diagnosis......Page 341
Standardized Tests......Page 342
Malingering and Deception......Page 343
Computer-Based Test Interpretation......Page 344
Further Reading......Page 345
Glossary......Page 346
Attention and Perception......Page 347
Categorization......Page 348
Social Inference......Page 349
Language and Communication Style......Page 350
Intelligence......Page 351
Further Reading......Page 352
Glossary......Page 353
Economic Needs......Page 354
Decline of Specific Aptitudes through the Life Span......Page 355
Alzheimer’s Disease......Page 356
Evidence for Optimal Cognitive Aging......Page 357
Correlates of Optimal Cognitive Aging......Page 358
Activities That Directly Benefit Cognition......Page 359
Activities That Indirectly Benefit Cognition......Page 360
Selective Optimization with Compensation......Page 361
Looking Ahead......Page 362
Further Reading......Page 363
Introduction......Page 364
Cognitive and Behavioral Theories of Depressed Affect......Page 365
General Issues in Considering Types of Interventions......Page 366
Cognitive Restructuring......Page 367
Maximizing Control......Page 368
Pets/Dolls......Page 369
Clear Labels and Signs......Page 370
Combination Therapies......Page 371
Further Reading......Page 372
Cognitive Skills and Their Importance for Daily Functioning......Page 373
Memory......Page 374
How Cognitive Skills May Be Maintained......Page 375
Cognitive Training......Page 376
Transfer of Training......Page 377
Further Reading......Page 378
Glossary......Page 379
Cognitivism During the Behaviorist Era......Page 380
Cognitive Science......Page 381
The Level of Physical Implementation......Page 382
Systems Approach......Page 383
Representation......Page 384
Process......Page 385
Further Reading......Page 386
Glossary......Page 388
Instrumentality......Page 389
Identity......Page 391
Ideology......Page 392
The Transformation of Potentiality into Action......Page 393
Further Reading......Page 394
Glossary......Page 395
Introduction......Page 396
The Origin of Metamers......Page 397
Diagnosing Dichromatism and Anomalous Trichromatism with an Anomaloscope......Page 398
Causes of Color Blindness......Page 399
Detecting and Diagnosing Color Blindness: A Two-Step Strategy......Page 400
Problems Related to the Use of Basic Chromatic Categories......Page 402
Further Reading......Page 404
Introduction......Page 405
Empirical Grounding: The Research Basis for Efforts to Make a Positive Difference in Communities and the Larger Society......Page 406
Ecological Multilevel Framework......Page 407
Social Problems......Page 408
Sense of Community......Page 409
Prevention and Promotion......Page 410
Further Reading......Page 411
Glossary......Page 413
Fringe Benefits......Page 414
Job Evaluation......Page 415
Performance Appraisal: Qualitative Versus Quantitative Yardsticks......Page 416
Control by Employees......Page 417
Further Reading......Page 418
The Concept of Competence at Work......Page 419
Measurement and Assessment of Competence......Page 421
Barriers to Effective Assessment......Page 422
Developing and Improving Competence......Page 423
Further Reading......Page 424
Competitive Sport: A Worldwide Phenomenon......Page 425
A Model for Understanding Competition......Page 426
Stress in Sport......Page 427
Managing Competitive Stress......Page 428
Further Reading......Page 429
Introduction......Page 430
The Conflict Process......Page 431
Conflict Management Strategies......Page 432
Structural Conditions Affecting Conflict......Page 433
Organizational Characteristics......Page 434
Conflict Outcomes......Page 435
Methods of Intervention......Page 436
See Also the Following Articles......Page 437
Further Reading......Page 438
Comparisons of Subsistence Economies......Page 439
Conformity and Individualism-Collectivism......Page 440
Conformity or Harmony?......Page 441
Further Reading......Page 442
Glossary......Page 443
General Features of the Connectionist Cognitive Architecture......Page 444
Localist and Distributed Representational Systems and Their Properties......Page 445
Dynamics of an Information Processing Unit......Page 446
Dynamics of Interunit Connections......Page 447
Examples of Connectionist Architectures......Page 448
Applications of Connectionism......Page 449
Further Reading......Page 450
Conscientiousness as a Dimension of Personality......Page 451
Mental Health and Psychotherapy......Page 452
Conclusion......Page 453
Further Reading......Page 454
Conceptions of Conservation Behavior......Page 455
Goal-Directed Action: One Class of Behavioral Means......Page 456
No Goal, No Drive......Page 457
Differentially Striving for a Single Goal......Page 458
Further Reading......Page 459
Introduction......Page 460
Relationship and Interpersonal Aspects......Page 461
Further Reading......Page 462
Glossary......Page 463
I Buy, Therefore I Am......Page 464
Need Recognition......Page 465
Evaluation of Alternatives......Page 466
Postpurchase Evaluation and Satisfaction......Page 467
Biases in the Decision-Making Process......Page 468
Psychological Influences on Consumption......Page 469
Cultural and Interpersonal Influences on Consumption......Page 470
Further Reading......Page 471
What Is a Contract?......Page 473
Cross-National Differences......Page 474
See Also the Following Articles......Page 475
Further Reading......Page 476
Glossary......Page 477
Teamwork Examined......Page 478
Teamwork Derailers......Page 479
Facilitators of Teamwork......Page 480
Promoting Cooperation and Teamwork at Work through Training......Page 481
Measuring Team Performance and Effectiveness......Page 483
Conclusion......Page 484
Further Reading......Page 485
Types of Coping......Page 486
Coping Processes......Page 487
Coping with Trauma......Page 488
Further Reading......Page 489
Introduction......Page 490
Culturally Learned Assumptions in Counselor Education......Page 491
Multicultural Theories of Counseling......Page 493
Resistance to Multiculturalism as a Fourth Force......Page 495
Further Reading......Page 496
Glossary......Page 498
Dynamics of Counselor-Client Interaction......Page 499
Values and Ethics......Page 500
Trust......Page 501
Diversity......Page 502
Conclusion......Page 503
Further Reading......Page 504
Definition of Cross-Cultural Psychology......Page 505
History of Cross-Cultural Psychology......Page 506
Levels of Analysis......Page 507
Emics and Etics......Page 508
Tightness and Looseness......Page 509
Collectivism and Individualism......Page 510
Antecedents of Collectivism......Page 511
Consequences Of Collectivism for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation......Page 512
Power Distance......Page 513
Evaluation of Findings and Applications......Page 514
Further Reading......Page 515
Glossary......Page 517
Theories on the Origins of Cultural Complexity......Page 518
Measuring Cultural Complexity......Page 519
Cultural Complexity and Dimensions of Cultural Variation......Page 520
Globalization and Cultural Complexity......Page 521
Further Reading......Page 522
Glossary......Page 523
Cultural Psychology Compared with Cross-Cultural Psychology......Page 524
Sociopolitical Roots of Cultural Psychology......Page 526
Parental Ethnotheories: An Example of Shared Meaning......Page 527
Apprenticeship: The Historical Transformation of Shared Practice......Page 528
Application of Cultural Psychology......Page 529
Further Reading......Page 530
Glossary......Page 532
Individualism......Page 533
Hierarchy Versus Equality......Page 534
Relationships among the Cultural Syndromes......Page 535
See Also the Following Articles......Page 536
Further Reading......Page 537
Glossary......Page 538
Cyberspace: A Technocultural Realm......Page 539
Cyberpsychology: An Increasingly Grounded Brand Name......Page 540
A Tool for Psychologists......Page 542
Psychological Processes and Human Performance......Page 543
Further Reading......Page 544
Introduction......Page 546
Features and Distinctions......Page 547
Uncertainty/Probability......Page 548
Models and Modes of Decision Making......Page 549
Areas of Application......Page 550
Further Reading......Page 551
Introduction......Page 552
Nonsport Perspectives on DM......Page 553
DM in Sport: The Dynamics and Mechanisms......Page 554
Visual-Spatial Attention......Page 555
Anticipatory Mechanisms......Page 556
Memory Representations, Information Delivery, and Knowledge Structure......Page 557
DM in Teams......Page 558
Perceived Stress and DM......Page 559
Summary: A Holistic View of DM in Sport......Page 560
Further Reading......Page 561
Glossary......Page 562
Myths and Stereotyping......Page 563
Pharmacological Effects......Page 564
Screening and Diagnostic Tools......Page 565
Stroke, Atherosclerosis of Cerebral Arteries, High Cholesterol, and Hypertension......Page 566
Management Concerns......Page 567
Further Reading......Page 568
Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression......Page 569
Relations Among Depression, Physical Diseases, and Medications......Page 570
Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale......Page 571
Psychodynamic Therapies......Page 572
Life Review Therapy......Page 573
Further Reading......Page 574
Introduction......Page 576
The Developmental Viewpoint......Page 577
Collaborative Relationships......Page 578
Appraisal in Developmental Counseling......Page 579
Further Reading......Page 580
Antecedents......Page 582
DSM-I (1952)......Page 583
DSM-III (1980)......Page 584
Inclusion of Five Diagnostic Axes......Page 585
Critical Positions......Page 586
Further Reading......Page 589
Introduction......Page 590
Understanding Culture as a Continuum......Page 591
Cross-Cultural Communication......Page 592
Diversity in Education......Page 593
See Also the Following Articles......Page 594
Further Reading......Page 595
Glossary......Page 596
Mergers, Acquisitions, and the Demise of Loyalty......Page 597
Effects of Downsizing on Knowledge-Based Organizations......Page 598
Roles of Procedural and Distributive Justice in Employment Downsizing......Page 599
Further Reading......Page 600
Glossary......Page 602
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)......Page 603
Decision Making......Page 604
Educational Programs......Page 605
Further Reading......Page 606
Driving Safety as a Behavioral Target......Page 608
Speeding......Page 609
Safety Belt Nonuse......Page 610
Driving Safety among Older Drivers......Page 611
Driving Safety among Younger Drivers......Page 612
Further Reading......Page 613
Introduction......Page 614
Risk Factors and Causes of Drug Abuse......Page 615
Assessment of Drug Abuse......Page 616
See Also the Following Articles......Page 617
Further Reading......Page 618
Glossary......Page 619
Concept of Drug Dependence......Page 620
Primary Types of Drug Dependence......Page 621
Contingencies of Dependence......Page 622
Topography and Function of Drug Response Classes......Page 623
Effects of Titration on Drug Response Class......Page 624
Family Protectiveness......Page 625
Conclusion......Page 626
Further Reading......Page 627
Introduction......Page 628
Cultural and Environmental Influences on Food Selection......Page 629
The Role of Personality in Eating Behavior......Page 630
Obesity and the Problem of Eating Too Much......Page 631
Overcoming Obstacles to Weight Control......Page 632
Further Reading......Page 633
The Nature of Humankind in Economic Theory and the Need for Psychology......Page 634
Consumers......Page 635
Workers......Page 636
Economic Growth......Page 637
Further Reading......Page 638
Glossary......Page 640
Overview of Cultural Approaches to Teaching, Learning, and Achievement......Page 641
Cross-Cultural Differences in Mathematics Achievement......Page 642
Cultural Explanations for Cross-Ethnic Differences in Achievement in the United States......Page 643
Educational Effort......Page 644
Directions for Future Research on Cross-Cultural Achievement......Page 645
Further Reading......Page 646
Introduction......Page 647
Four Goals of Assessment......Page 648
Psychological Theories and Constructs in Assessing Children’s Achievements and Social Adaptation and Personality......Page 649
Modeling Individual Differences in Intelligence and Aptitudes......Page 650
Screening of Developmental Backwardness......Page 651
Personality and Temperament......Page 652
The Assessment Process in Children......Page 653
Case Study: an Example of Educational and Child Assessment......Page 654
Three Months Later......Page 655
Further Reading......Page 656
Introduction......Page 658
Planning for Content Coverage......Page 659
Using Effective Teaching Strategies......Page 660
Promoting Effective Inclusive Instruction......Page 661
Further Reading......Page 662
Glossary......Page 663
Sexual Abuse......Page 664
Perpetrator Characteristics......Page 665
Approach......Page 666
Assessment of Cognitive Status and Personality of the Patient......Page 667
Treatment and Management......Page 668
Ethical Issues......Page 669
Acknowledgments......Page 670
Further Reading......Page 671
Introduction......Page 672
Stressors of Caregiving: What Do Caregivers Do?......Page 673
Individual Differences in Reaction to Caregiving......Page 674
Biopsychosocial Impact of Caregiving......Page 676
Interventions for Caregivers......Page 678
Further Reading......Page 680
Introduction......Page 681
Social Functions of Emotion......Page 682
Anger......Page 683
Happiness......Page 684
Emotions and Health......Page 685
Emotions and Work......Page 687
Emotions in School......Page 688
Further Reading......Page 689
Conceptualizations of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology......Page 691
Behaviors, Symptoms, Syndromes, and Disorders......Page 692
Internalizing Disorders......Page 693
Academic Correlates of Internalizing Behaviors......Page 694
Externalizing Disorders......Page 695
Programmatic Interventions......Page 696
Externalizing Patterns......Page 697
Further Reading......Page 698
Glossary......Page 699
Physiological Response Patterns Research......Page 700
Universal Dimensions of Appraisal and Action Readiness......Page 701
Are Emotions Culture Specific?......Page 702
Antecedent Events......Page 703
Conclusion......Page 704
Further Reading......Page 705
Introduction......Page 706
Optimal......Page 707
Form Dimension......Page 708
Interindividual Variability......Page 709
Dynamics and Bidirectionality......Page 710
Individualized Assessments and Monitoring of Emotions......Page 711
Individualized Emotion Profiling......Page 712
Self-Generated Metaphors......Page 713
Narratives......Page 714
Practical Implications......Page 715
Conclusion......Page 716
Further Reading......Page 717
Glossary......Page 718
Basic Concepts in Employment Discrimination......Page 719
Role of Validity......Page 720
Validation......Page 721
Evidence Based on Content......Page 722
Evidence Based on Relationships with Other Variables......Page 723
Other Evidence-Related Issues......Page 724
Aging......Page 725
Individuals with Disabilities......Page 726
Sexual Harassment......Page 727
Further Reading......Page 728
Definition......Page 730
Methods for Enhancing the Structure of Interviews......Page 731
Validity......Page 732
Subgroup Differences......Page 733
Further Reading......Page 734
Glossary......Page 736
Predictors of Mortality......Page 737
Familial Caregiver Strain and Growth Potential......Page 738
Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments......Page 740
Meaning-Centered Group Interventions......Page 741
Ongoing Studies by the Authors......Page 742
Further Reading......Page 743
Historical Background......Page 744
The Human-Machine System as the Subject of Engineering Psychology......Page 745
Circulation of Information in Human-Machine Systems......Page 746
Cognition......Page 747
Decision Support Systems......Page 748
Human Reliability......Page 749
Cognitive Task Analysis and Knowledge Elicitation......Page 750
Development and Planning of Human-Machine Systems......Page 751
Future Developments......Page 752
Further Reading......Page 753
Physical and Architectural Features......Page 754
Behavior Settings......Page 755
Environmental Impacts......Page 756
See Also the Following Articles......Page 757
Further Reading......Page 758
Glossary......Page 759
Introduction......Page 760
Why Involve Others and Why Participate Oneself?......Page 762
Who Is the Public?......Page 763
How Does One Involve Others?......Page 764
Further Reading......Page 765
Glossary......Page 767
Environmental Psychology within and around the Psychological Tradition......Page 768
Environmental Psychology and Other Environmental Fields......Page 769
Spatial Behavior......Page 770
Environmental Stress and Restorative Environments......Page 772
Environmental Assessment......Page 773
Environmental Concern, Environmentally Friendly Behaviors, and Natural Resources......Page 775
Place-Specific Environmental Psychology......Page 777
The Future of Environmental Psychology......Page 779
Further Reading......Page 780
Glossary......Page 781
Spillover......Page 782
Cognitive Consequences......Page 783
Motivational Consequences......Page 784
Physiological Stress......Page 785
Coping Perseveration......Page 786
Conclusion......Page 787
Further Reading......Page 788
Glossary......Page 791
Different Levels of Risk......Page 792
Classical Decision Theory......Page 793
Estimation Heuristics......Page 795
External versus Internal Control......Page 796
Risk Homeostasis and Safety Regulation......Page 797
Emotional Significance of Risk......Page 798
Negative Meaning of Risk......Page 799
Multidimensionality of Risk......Page 800
Meaning and Feasibility of Risk Comparisons......Page 801
Risk as Low as Reasonably Achievable......Page 802
Macro and Micro Level Perspectives......Page 803
Precautionary Principle......Page 804
See Also the Following Articles......Page 805
Further Reading......Page 806
Glossary......Page 807
Science: Value Free or Value Bound?......Page 808
‘‘No-Go’’ or ‘‘Slow-Go’’ Decisions?......Page 809
Further Reading......Page 810
Glossary......Page 811
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act......Page 812
Least Restrictive Environment......Page 813
Labeling and Classification of Exceptional Students......Page 814
Assessment of Exceptional Students......Page 815
Social Characteristics......Page 816
Further Reading......Page 817
What Is the Historical Context?......Page 819
Who Is an Effective Executive?......Page 820
Assessment Approaches......Page 821
Intervention Approaches......Page 822
Learning by Personal Experience with a Group......Page 823
Which Performance Areas Are More Amenable to Development?......Page 824
What Are the Hallmarks of Development Success and Failure?......Page 825
Further Reading......Page 826
Definitions......Page 827
Space Travel......Page 828
High Mountains......Page 829
Cold Regions......Page 831
Isolation: The Changing Extreme......Page 832
Further Reading......Page 833
Origins and Early Studies......Page 834
Psychophysiological Studies......Page 835
Emotional Disorders......Page 836
See Also the Following Articles......Page 837
Further Reading......Page 838
Glossary......Page 839
Categorization of Variables......Page 840
Distance from the Event/Perpetrator......Page 841
Witness Race, Gender, and Occupation......Page 842
Distinctiveness and Typicality of the Perpetrator......Page 843
Obtaining Information from the Witness......Page 844
Verbal Overshadowing......Page 845
Making and Utilizing Composite Portraits......Page 846
Lineup Instruction Effects......Page 847
Alternative Strategies: Blank Lineups, Sequential Lineups, and Relative Judgments......Page 848
The Prosecution......Page 849
Jurors’ ‘‘Common Knowledge’’ of Problems with Eyewitness Identification......Page 850
Further Reading......Page 851
Eyewitness Errors and Wrongful Convictions......Page 852
Creating New Memories......Page 853
Emotion and Memory......Page 854
Further Reading......Page 856
Glossary......Page 858
Social Prejudice in Sport......Page 859
Sexism......Page 860
Nationalism......Page 861
Celebrating Difference through Sport......Page 862
Reducing Racism in Sport......Page 863
Securing Child Welfare in Sport......Page 864
Applied Sport Psychology and Social Justice......Page 865
Further Reading......Page 866
Culture......Page 867
Family Theories......Page 868
Definition of Family......Page 869
Family Typology......Page 870
The Nuclear Family: Separate or Part of the Extended Family?......Page 871
Residence......Page 872
Marriage......Page 873
Family Roles and Power......Page 874
Psychological Dimensions......Page 875
Conclusion......Page 876
Further Reading......Page 878
Historical Background......Page 879
Psychoanalysis and Feminist Psychology......Page 880
The Feminist Perspective in the History of Psychology......Page 881
Community Psychology and the Feminist Perspective......Page 882
Further Reading......Page 883
Introduction......Page 885
Professional Literature......Page 886
Principles of FMHA......Page 887
Training......Page 894
Practice......Page 895
Further Reading......Page 896
Introduction......Page 898
The Developing Child in Context......Page 899
Generalist Approach to Service Delivery......Page 900
Variations in Organizational Structure and Function......Page 901
Implications for Continuing Professional Development of Psychologists......Page 902
Further Reading......Page 903
Glossary......Page 905
Cultural Environments......Page 906
Socialization of Girls and Boys......Page 907
Education......Page 908
Self-Esteem......Page 909
Findings across Cultures......Page 910
Cognitive Development......Page 911
Gender Stereotypes......Page 912
Masculinity/Femininity of Self-Concepts......Page 913
Romantic Love......Page 914
Gender Division of Labor......Page 915
Further Reading......Page 916
What Is Gender Equity?......Page 918
Concerns for Boys......Page 919
The Curriculum......Page 920
Summary......Page 921
Further Reading......Page 922
Glossary......Page 923
The Construction of Gender......Page 924
Gender Acquisition in Childhood......Page 925
Sexism......Page 926
Gender’s Sexual Component......Page 927
Homosexuality......Page 929
Homophobia......Page 930
Marriage......Page 931
Single Parenthood......Page 932
Gender and the Psychological Experience of Aging......Page 933
Feminism......Page 934
Further Reading......Page 935
Toward a Modern Individualist Society......Page 937
Acquisition of Gender Identity......Page 938
Active Participation in Gender Socialization......Page 939
Shaping Future Women and Men......Page 940
Further Reading......Page 941
The Merging of Applied and Clinical Geropsychology......Page 943
Knowledge Relating to Mental and Behavioral Health Disorders in Older Adults......Page 944
Principle 1: Cohort Considerations......Page 945
Further Reading......Page 946
Philosophical Foundations......Page 947
Therapy Method......Page 948
Theoretical Bases......Page 950
Empirical Studies......Page 952
Kim......Page 953
Outcome......Page 955
Further Reading......Page 956
Introduction......Page 957
Identification and Nurturing......Page 958
Further Reading......Page 959
Glossary......Page 961
Basic Tenets of Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory......Page 962
Testing of Locke’s Theory in Sport/The Physical Domain......Page 963
The Meaning of Goals......Page 964
Basic Tenets of the Achievement Goal Framework......Page 965
Achievement Goals, Discrete Goals, and Goal-Setting Styles......Page 966
Potential Mechanisms Influencing the Goal Setting-Performance Relationship......Page 967
Additional Considerations and Future Directions......Page 968
Further Reading......Page 969
Introduction......Page 972
Therapeutic Factors Theory and Research......Page 973
Effective Interventions Theory and Research......Page 975
Considerations......Page 976
Further Reading......Page 977
Introduction......Page 978
Unique Attributes of Sport Teams as Groups......Page 979
Variability......Page 980
Cohesion in Sport Teams......Page 981
Correlates of Cohesion......Page 982
The Leadership Scale for Sports......Page 983
The Mediational Model of Leadership......Page 984
Correlates of Leadership......Page 985
Motivational Climate......Page 986
Further Reading......Page 987
Introduction......Page 988
Steiner’s Theory of Group Productivity......Page 989
Social Loafing......Page 990
Motivation Gains in Groups......Page 991
Implications for Groups at Work......Page 992
Further Reading......Page 993
The Groupthink Model Defined and Explained......Page 994
Evidence Regarding the Groupthink Phenomenon......Page 996
Implicit Assumptions......Page 998
Framing......Page 999
Implications and Suggestions for Future Research and Theory......Page 1000
Prescriptions for Effective Group Problem Solving......Page 1001
Further Reading......Page 1002
The Concept of Culture......Page 1003
Underlying Structure of Illness Representations......Page 1004
Behavior and Disease Risk......Page 1005
Integrating Culture into Health Psychology......Page 1006
Further Reading......Page 1007
Glossary......Page 1008
Physical Health......Page 1009
Sexual Health......Page 1010
Mental Health......Page 1011
Health Promotion......Page 1012
Coordinated School Health Programs......Page 1013
Summary......Page 1014
Further Reading......Page 1015
Glossary......Page 1016
Concepts and Definitions......Page 1017
Theoretical Foundations......Page 1018
Cross-Cultural Health Psychology in Practice......Page 1019
Risk Factors, Determinants, and Prevention......Page 1020
Disease Management and Impact Alleviation......Page 1021
Addressing Social Inequalities and Population Health......Page 1023
Current Issues and Future Directions......Page 1024
Further Reading......Page 1026
Introduction......Page 1028
Clinical Psychology......Page 1029
Educational Psychology......Page 1030
Early Work in Organizational Settings......Page 1031
Early Testing......Page 1032
Interactions across Specialties......Page 1033
The Institutionalization of the Field: Emerging Societies of Applied Psychology......Page 1034
Inborn versus Learned (Acquired) Abilities......Page 1035
Studying People or Analyzing Situations......Page 1036
The Influence of World War II (1939-1945)......Page 1037
Theory and Practice: The Influence of the Era of Schools......Page 1038
Applied Psychology in the Second Half of the 20th Century......Page 1040
Organizational Psychology......Page 1041
Other Specialties......Page 1042
General Trends......Page 1043
Further Reading......Page 1044
The Personality Types......Page 1046
Person-Environment Congruence......Page 1047
Summary......Page 1048
Further Reading......Page 1049
Home-School Collaboration Defined......Page 1050
Partnering With Families in Education: A Modern Approach to Collaboration......Page 1051
Factors Influencing Home-School Collaboration......Page 1052
No Child Left Behind......Page 1053
Home- and Family-Related Factors......Page 1054
Community-Related Factors......Page 1055
Conclusion......Page 1056
Further Reading......Page 1057
Glossary......Page 1058
Definition of Sexual Prejudice......Page 1059
Social Attitudes, Physiological Arousal, and Homophobia......Page 1060
Gender Differences in Prejudice: Homosexuals, Bisexuals, and Transgendered Persons......Page 1061
Further Reading......Page 1062
Introduction......Page 1064
History, Culture, and the Problem of Defining Homosexuality......Page 1065
The Four Areas of Biological Study of Homosexuality......Page 1066
Problems Posed by Biological Study of the Origins of Homosexuality......Page 1067
Realization of a Gay or Lesbian Identity and the Life Course......Page 1068
Childhood and Adolescence......Page 1069
Mental Health......Page 1070
Homosexuality and the AIDS Pandemic......Page 1071
‘‘Normal’’ and Beyond: Gay and Lesbian Relationships, Marriage, and Parenthood......Page 1072
Further Reading......Page 1074
Institutional Definition of Human Rights......Page 1075
The Ambiguous Message of Social Psychology......Page 1076
Human Rights as Normative Social Representations......Page 1078
Research Findings......Page 1079
Putting Things in Perspective......Page 1082
Further Reading......Page 1083
Multiple Meanings of Humor......Page 1085
Mechanisms: Possible Mediators and Moderators......Page 1086
Methodological Issues......Page 1087
Humor and Physical Health......Page 1088
Further Reading......Page 1089
Glossary......Page 1091
Pain and Analgesia......Page 1092
Other Clinical Applications......Page 1093
Learning and Memory......Page 1094
Conclusion......Page 1095
Further Reading......Page 1096
Glossary......Page 1097
Ideology and Values: Definitions......Page 1098
Inglehart: Materialism versus Post-Materialism......Page 1099
Schwartz and Triandis: More Encompassing Value Orientations......Page 1100
On the Dimensionality of (Conservative) Ideology......Page 1102
Relationship with Values and Value Orientations......Page 1103
Political Consequences of Ideology and Value Orientations......Page 1104
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1105
Further Reading......Page 1106
Perspectives on Indecision......Page 1107
A Multidimensional Construct......Page 1108
Future Directions......Page 1109
Further Reading......Page 1110
Historical Background......Page 1111
What Is Indigenous Psychology?......Page 1112
How Is Research Done?......Page 1113
An Example: Educational Attainment......Page 1114
Future Directions......Page 1115
Further Reading......Page 1116
Introduction......Page 1118
Cross-Cultural Approaches to Work Motivation......Page 1119
Cross-Cultural Differences in How Employees Are Motivated at Work: Process Theories......Page 1120
The Culture-Based Model of Work Motivation......Page 1121
Staffing: Recruitment and Selection......Page 1122
Performance Management: Criteria, Evaluation, and Development......Page 1123
The Culture-Based Model of Human Resource Management......Page 1124
Expatriate Management......Page 1125
Multicultural Teams......Page 1126
Job Satisfaction......Page 1127
Organizational Justice......Page 1128
Further Reading......Page 1130
Definition......Page 1131
History......Page 1132
Development Phase......Page 1134
Maintenance Phase......Page 1135
Future Trends......Page 1136
Further Reading......Page 1137
Introduction......Page 1139
Psychological Effects of Sport Injury......Page 1140
Psychological Interventions in Sport Injury Rehabilitation......Page 1142
Further Reading......Page 1143
Glossary......Page 1144
Relativist Viewpoint......Page 1145
Universalist Viewpoint......Page 1146
The Measurement of Intelligence in a Cross-Cultural Context......Page 1147
Formal Versus Informal Studies of Intelligence......Page 1148
Everyday Definitions of Intelligence......Page 1149
Further Reading......Page 1150
What is Intelligence?......Page 1152
The Measurement of Intelligence......Page 1153
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised......Page 1154
Cognitive Assessment System......Page 1155
Woodcock-Johnson III......Page 1156
Recent Advances......Page 1157
Further Reading......Page 1158
Why the Interest in Emotional Intelligence?......Page 1160
Various Models of Emotional Intelligence......Page 1161
Measurement of Emotional Intelligence......Page 1162
The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Health, Work, and Educational Adjustment......Page 1163
Further Reading......Page 1164
Glossary......Page 1165
Psychometric Theories......Page 1166
Cognitive-Contextual Theories......Page 1167
Development of Intelligence......Page 1168
Early Historical Background......Page 1169
The Heritability and Malleability of Intelligence......Page 1170
Further Reading......Page 1171
Defining Behavior......Page 1173
Intentions as Predictors of Behavior......Page 1174
An Integrated Theoretical Model......Page 1175
Determinants of Behavior......Page 1176
The Role of Distal Variables......Page 1177
Further Reading......Page 1178
Glossary......Page 1179
What Is Culture?......Page 1180
Intercultural Relations and Sociocultural Adaptation......Page 1181
Individual- and Group-Level Explanations......Page 1182
Social Identity Theory......Page 1183
Identification and Strategies for Escaping an Unsatisfactory Social Identity......Page 1184
Empirical Evidence and Limits of Generalizability......Page 1185
The Special Circumstances of Minority Groups......Page 1186
Is Intergroup Bias Ubiquitous?......Page 1187
The Contact Hypothesis......Page 1188
Mechanisms by Which Contact Reduces Intergroup Bias: The Role of Category Salience......Page 1189
Integrating Different Models of Contact......Page 1190
Realistic Goals for Real-Life Intergroup Relations......Page 1191
Further Reading......Page 1192
Introduction......Page 1193
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision......Page 1194
ICD-10’s Chapter 5: Mental and Behavioral Disorders......Page 1195
Comparison between ICD-10 and DSM-IV......Page 1196
Further Reading......Page 1197
Glossary......Page 1198
Conflict as a Process Driven by Collective Needs and Fears......Page 1199
Conflict as an Intersocietal Process......Page 1200
Conflict as a Multifaceted Process of Mutual Influence......Page 1201
Conflict as an Interactive Process with an Escalatory, Self-Perpetuating Dynamic......Page 1202
Formation of Collective Moods......Page 1203
Decision-Making Processes......Page 1204
Perceptual Processes......Page 1205
Resistance to Contradictory Information......Page 1206
Implications for Conflict Resolution......Page 1207
Further Reading......Page 1209
Glossary......Page 1211
Historical Development......Page 1212
The Practice of Internet Counseling......Page 1213
Research on Internet Counseling......Page 1216
Ethical, Professional, and Legal Considerations......Page 1217
Limitations and Problems......Page 1218
Further Reading......Page 1219
Glossary......Page 1221
What Is IA and What Generates It?......Page 1222
Causes and Explanations for IA: Theories of Social Psychology and Levels of Analysis......Page 1223
Society......Page 1224
Applications of the Psychology of IA......Page 1225
Further Reading......Page 1227
Glossary......Page 1228
Structural Models......Page 1229
Cultural Syndromes......Page 1230
Behavioral Prediction Models......Page 1231
Sociality......Page 1232
Social Norms and Conformity......Page 1233
Interpersonal Relationships......Page 1234
Applications: Cross-Cultural Interaction......Page 1235
Further Reading......Page 1236
Glossary......Page 1237
Understanding and Managing Conflict in Interpersonal Relationships......Page 1238
Relationship Structure and Social Comparison......Page 1239
Interference......Page 1240
Experiencing and Expressing Conflict: The Role of Qualitative Relationship Features......Page 1241
Overview of the Conflict Mechanism: Directives and Keys to Managing Conflict......Page 1243
Managing Conflict......Page 1245
Problem Solving......Page 1246
Mediation......Page 1247
Conclusion......Page 1248
Further Reading......Page 1249
Types of Perceptions......Page 1250
Further Reading......Page 1251
Introduction......Page 1253
The Solution: Questioning Techniques to Minimize Suggestibility......Page 1254
The Problem: Persuading Reluctant Interviewees to Talk......Page 1255
The Reid Nine Steps of Interrogation......Page 1256
Concerns with the Reid Technique......Page 1257
The Solution: Ethical Interviewing......Page 1258
Coerced Internalized False Confessions......Page 1259
Detecting Deceit......Page 1260
Common Pitfalls in Detecting Deceit......Page 1261
Techniques to Improve People’s Ability to Detect Deceit......Page 1262
Further Reading......Page 1263
Introduction......Page 1265
Extrinsic Motivation......Page 1266
Assessment of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Amotivation......Page 1267
The Task......Page 1268
Individual Differences......Page 1269
Motivational Determinants at the Global Level......Page 1270
Interventions......Page 1271
Further Reading......Page 1272
Glossary......Page 1274
Extrinsic Motivation and Behaviorism......Page 1275
Intrinsic Motivation......Page 1276
Interpersonal Contexts......Page 1277
Intrinsic Motivation and Outcomes......Page 1278
Internalization of Extrinsic Motivation......Page 1279
Internalization in Social Contexts......Page 1280
Autonomy Support in Parenting......Page 1281
Autonomy Support in Education......Page 1282
Autonomy Support in Health Care......Page 1283
Summary and Conclusions......Page 1284
Further Reading......Page 1285
Glossary......Page 1286
Job Analysis......Page 1287
Job Design......Page 1288
The Two-Factor Model......Page 1289
Sociotechnical Systems......Page 1290
Job Evaluation......Page 1291
Organization Development......Page 1292
Further Reading......Page 1293
Glossary......Page 1294
The Job Search Process......Page 1295
Job Search Interventions......Page 1296
Job Information Sources......Page 1297
Demographic/Biographical Variables......Page 1298
Situational Variables......Page 1299
Psychological Well-Being......Page 1300
Further Reading......Page 1301
Introduction......Page 1303
Consequences of Job Stress......Page 1304
Modifiers of the Stress Response......Page 1305
Occupational Stress Inventory......Page 1306
Preventive Stress Management......Page 1307
Implications for Executives and Leaders......Page 1309
Further Reading......Page 1310
Introduction......Page 1311
Models of Job Stress......Page 1312
Causes of Job Stress......Page 1313
Coping with Job Stress......Page 1315
Burnout......Page 1316
Job Stress Interventions......Page 1317
Further Reading......Page 1318
Introduction......Page 1320
Impact of Juror Demographic Characteristics......Page 1321
Psychology of Persuasion......Page 1322
Jury Consulting and Jury Selection......Page 1323
Story Model......Page 1324
Eyewitness Evidence......Page 1325
Decision-Making Process......Page 1326
Applications......Page 1327
Anonymous Juries......Page 1328
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1329
Further Reading......Page 1330
Glossary......Page 1331
Performance-Turnover Relationship......Page 1332
Structural Determinants of Turnover......Page 1333
Unfolding Model......Page 1335
Methods for Controlling Turnover......Page 1336
Interventions for Reducing Turnover......Page 1337
Further Reading......Page 1338
Glossary......Page 1340
Cross-Cultural Methodology......Page 1341
Etic Approach: The Leader’s Characteristics......Page 1342
Normative Model of Decision Making......Page 1345
Quasi-Emic and Emic Approaches: Implicit Leadership Theory......Page 1346
Emic Approach to Leadership......Page 1347
Multicultural Research Teams......Page 1348
Cultural Collision and Leadership......Page 1349
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1350
Further Reading......Page 1351
Glossary......Page 1352
Defining Elements......Page 1353
Declarative Knowledge......Page 1354
The Role of Practice......Page 1355
Student Self-Efficacy: A Sense of Competency......Page 1356
Implications for Knowledge Assessment......Page 1357
Developmental and Individual Differences......Page 1358
Further Reading......Page 1359
History of Learning Disabilities......Page 1360
United States Legal Definition......Page 1361
Converging Professional Perspectives on Definition......Page 1362
Proposed Future Definitions......Page 1363
Perceptual Motor Training......Page 1365
Treatments for Learning Disabilities with General Research Support......Page 1366
Behavior Modification......Page 1367
Maximizing Results for Persons with Learning Disabilities......Page 1368
Further Reading......Page 1369
Historical and Conceptual Introduction......Page 1370
Learning Strategies and Approaches to Studying......Page 1371
Measurement Instruments......Page 1372
Relationships to Achievement and to Learning Environments......Page 1373
Further Reading......Page 1375
Introduction: The Structure of Mental Health Laws......Page 1376
Causal Component......Page 1377
Judgmental Component......Page 1378
Competence to Waive Miranda......Page 1379
Adjudicative Competence......Page 1380
Mental State at the Time of the Offense......Page 1381
Guardianship......Page 1382
Competence to Consent to Research Participation......Page 1384
Ethical Issues......Page 1385
Further Reading......Page 1386
Glossary......Page 1388
Emergence of a Psychological Perspective......Page 1389
Attributes of Leisure Experience......Page 1390
Autonomy and Competence......Page 1391
Wundt’s Law of Hedonic Tone......Page 1392
Benefits of Leisure Experience......Page 1393
Theories of Benefit Production......Page 1394
Theory of Transcendent Leisure Experiences......Page 1395
Leisure Counseling......Page 1396
Summary......Page 1397
Further Reading......Page 1398
Glossary......Page 1399
The Sociohistorical Tradition......Page 1400
Cultural Pathways through Universal Development: A New Synthesis......Page 1401
Application of Cultural Pathways During Infancy......Page 1403
Applications of Cultural Pathways in Schools......Page 1404
Further Reading......Page 1405
Glossary......Page 1407
Definition of Literacy......Page 1408
The Knowledge Base......Page 1409
Assessment Concepts and Tools......Page 1410
Interventions: Programs and People......Page 1411
Individual Differences......Page 1412
Prospects for Improving Literacy......Page 1413
Further Reading......Page 1414
Glossary......Page 1415
Common Considerations across Treatment Approaches......Page 1416
Cognitive-Behavioral Marital Therapy......Page 1417
Emotion-Focused Therapy......Page 1418
Outcome Research......Page 1419
Further Reading......Page 1420
Introduction......Page 1421
Studies of Early Number Learning......Page 1422
The Discursive Turn in Mathematics Education......Page 1423
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1424
Further Reading......Page 1425
Introduction......Page 1426
Relevance of Measurement to Counseling Psychology......Page 1427
Counseling Process and Outcome......Page 1428
Further Reading......Page 1429
Glossary......Page 1431
Construct Bias......Page 1432
Method Bias......Page 1433
Cultural Factors in the Assessment of Personality and Intelligence......Page 1435
Further Reading......Page 1437
Definition of Mentoring......Page 1438
Psychosocial Support......Page 1439
Benefits for the Mentor......Page 1440
Establishing Formal Versus Informal Relationships......Page 1441
Encourage Individuals to Establish Multiple Mentoring Relationships......Page 1442
Entrepreneurs......Page 1443
Further Reading......Page 1444
Introduction......Page 1445
Model Scope......Page 1446
Driver Performance Model in the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model......Page 1447
In-Vehicle Information Systems Demand Model......Page 1448
Rear-End Collision Warning Assessment Model......Page 1449
Further Reading......Page 1450
Definitions......Page 1452
Job Design......Page 1453
Learning Theories......Page 1454
Decision Theories......Page 1455
Who Should Be Hired?......Page 1456
Further Reading......Page 1457
Glossary......Page 1458
Early Conceptualizations of Achievement and Achievement Motivation......Page 1459
Toward a Basis for Investigating Achievement and Achievement Motivation across Cultures......Page 1460
Ecological Theory......Page 1461
Goal Theory......Page 1462
Methodological Improvements in Applied Settings......Page 1463
Conclusion......Page 1464
Further Reading......Page 1465
Introduction......Page 1467
Self-Efficacy Theory......Page 1468
Self-Determination Theory......Page 1469
Strategy 5: Rewarding Oneself for Exhibiting a Good Behavior......Page 1470
Concluding Remarks......Page 1471
Further Reading......Page 1472
Introduction......Page 1473
Goal Effects: Mechanisms and Moderators......Page 1474
Acceptance of Goals......Page 1476
Managing Successful Goal-Oriented Work Behavior: The Participatory Productivity Management......Page 1478
Competencies in Managing Goal-Directed Behavior......Page 1479
An Integrative Model for the Effects of Motives and Goals......Page 1480
Further Reading......Page 1481
Glossary......Page 1482
Specific Learning Disabilities......Page 1483
Other Disabilities That May Warrant a Neuropsychological Evaluation......Page 1484
Neuropsychological Assessment in the Past and Present......Page 1485
Who Can Complete a Neuropsychological Assessment?......Page 1486
Conceptual Framework for School Neuropsychological Assessment......Page 1487
Summary......Page 1488
Further Reading......Page 1489
Introduction......Page 1490
Nicotine Overview......Page 1491
Directions in Nicotine Addiction Research and Application......Page 1492
Further Reading......Page 1493
Glossary......Page 1494
Brief History of Nondiscriminatory Assessment in Schools......Page 1495
Issues and Definitions of Test Bias......Page 1497
Issues in Psychological Testing......Page 1499
Summary......Page 1500
Further Reading......Page 1501
Prevalence......Page 1502
Psychological and Behavioral Consequences......Page 1503
Behavioral Approaches......Page 1504
Strategies for Weight Loss Maintenance......Page 1505
Further Reading......Page 1506
Glossary......Page 1507
Super’s Life Span Theory......Page 1508
Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personality Types......Page 1509
Career Counseling for Occupational Choice......Page 1510
Further Reading......Page 1512
Glossary......Page 1513
Brief History......Page 1514
Applications of Occupational Psychology......Page 1515
Individual Differences......Page 1516
Key Topics in Occupational Psychology......Page 1517
Occupation and Gender......Page 1518
Personnel Selection......Page 1519
Further Reading......Page 1520
The Gender-Specific Employment Market......Page 1522
Concepts and Results......Page 1523
Leadership......Page 1524
Explanations......Page 1525
Career Advancement for Women and Managing Diversity......Page 1526
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1527
Further Reading......Page 1528
Conceptualizations of Openness......Page 1529
Openness and Vocational Behavior......Page 1530
Further Reading......Page 1531
Introduction......Page 1532
Hope......Page 1533
Development of Optimism......Page 1534
Further Reading......Page 1535
Glossary......Page 1536
History of Organizational Climate Analysis......Page 1537
History of Organizational Culture Analysis......Page 1538
Organizational Culture Change and Consultancy......Page 1539
Are Organizational Climate and Organizational Culture Analogous to Characteristics of Larger Societies and Nations?......Page 1540
Further Reading......Page 1541
The Concept of Organizational Diagnosis......Page 1543
Goals and Tasks......Page 1544
Instruments and Quality Criteria......Page 1545
Conducting Organizational Diagnosis......Page 1546
An Example: Organizational Diagnosis of Climate and Culture......Page 1547
Conclusion......Page 1548
Further Reading......Page 1549
What Is Organizational Justice?......Page 1550
The Importance of Justice......Page 1551
Situational Characteristics......Page 1552
Behaviors......Page 1553
Further Reading......Page 1554
Glossary......Page 1555
Conceptual Schemes......Page 1556
Various Adaptations......Page 1557
Systems-Oriented Research......Page 1558
Further Reading......Page 1559
Introduction......Page 1560
How Do Insiders Aid in Socialization?......Page 1561
Further Reading......Page 1562
Introduction......Page 1563
Formalization......Page 1564
Modern Approach......Page 1565
Organizational Consequences of Matrix Organization......Page 1566
Organizational Consequences of Globalization......Page 1567
Further Reading......Page 1568
Glossary......Page 1570
An Organization Development Case......Page 1571
Sequential......Page 1572
Systemic......Page 1573
Survey Feedback......Page 1574
Positive Reinforcement......Page 1575
The Organization as a Family......Page 1576
Stage 2: Changing......Page 1577
Lippitt et al.'s Five-Step Elaboration......Page 1578
Understanding Organizations: The Diagnostic Process......Page 1580
Tichy’s TPC Framework......Page 1581
Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organization Performance and Change......Page 1582
Methodology......Page 1583
Expert Facilitation......Page 1584
OD Values......Page 1585
Further Reading......Page 1586
Career and Life Stages......Page 1588
The Protean Career Contract......Page 1589
Life and Work Roles......Page 1590
Conclusion......Page 1591
Further Reading......Page 1592
Introduction......Page 1593
Overtraining......Page 1594
Burnout......Page 1595
Interrelation of Stress States and Recovery Demands......Page 1596
Treatment of Overtraining and Burnout......Page 1597
Further Reading......Page 1598
Glossary......Page 1599
Factors Influencing the Perception of Pain......Page 1600
Psychological Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients......Page 1601
Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programs......Page 1602
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1603
Further Reading......Page 1604
Introduction......Page 1606
Epidemiology of Panic Disorder......Page 1607
Treatment of Panic Disorder......Page 1608
Further Reading......Page 1609
Glossary......Page 1610
Levels of Analysis......Page 1611
Possible Functions of Paralinguistic Behaviors......Page 1612
The Relevance of Culture......Page 1613
Evolutionary Continuity in Communication......Page 1614
The Brunswikian Lens Model......Page 1615
Gender and Age of the Speaker......Page 1616
Situational States of the Speaker......Page 1617
Appeal to the Listener......Page 1618
Interpersonal Relationship between Speaker and Listener......Page 1619
Methodological Considerations......Page 1620
Judgment of Emotional Content......Page 1621
Cues to Personality Traits and Situational States......Page 1622
Selective Attention to Various Cues......Page 1623
Applications to Intercultural Encounters......Page 1624
Further Reading......Page 1625
Introduction......Page 1627
Comparing the Work Attitudes and Behaviors of Part-Time and Full-Time Employees......Page 1628
Differences among Part-Time Employees......Page 1629
Frames of Reference......Page 1630
Further Reading......Page 1631
Glossary......Page 1632
Chronic Illness......Page 1633
Prevention......Page 1634
Pediatric Psychology Training......Page 1635
Further Reading......Page 1636
Introduction......Page 1637
Pictorial Perception......Page 1638
Perception of Patterns......Page 1640
Concluding Remarks......Page 1641
Further Reading......Page 1642
Glossary......Page 1643
Causes of Performance Slumps......Page 1644
Coping Behaviors in Response to Slumps......Page 1646
Increasing Awareness and Managing Risk......Page 1648
Maintaining Confidence and Emotional Stability......Page 1649
Summary and Conclusions......Page 1650
Further Reading......Page 1651
Introduction......Page 1652
The Innovation Process......Page 1653
Person-Level Influences......Page 1654
Cognitive Abilities......Page 1656
Openness to Experience......Page 1657
Motivation......Page 1658
Operating Principles......Page 1659
Leadership......Page 1660
Structure and Size......Page 1661
Emerging Issues......Page 1662
Summary......Page 1663
Further Reading......Page 1664
Introduction......Page 1665
Mechanisms of Continuity and Change......Page 1666
Factors Affecting Whether Continuity or Change Is Observed......Page 1667
Evidence for Continuity......Page 1668
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory......Page 1669
Subjective Measures......Page 1670
Experience of Emotion......Page 1671
Expression of Emotion......Page 1672
Further Reading......Page 1673
Glossary......Page 1675
Modern Approaches and Contemporary Trends......Page 1676
Issues and Strategies......Page 1677
Further Reading......Page 1678
Measurement of Personal Space......Page 1679
Legal Uses......Page 1680
Further Reading......Page 1681
Overview and Definitions......Page 1682
Brief History: From Interactional Psychology to Fit......Page 1683
Supplementary and Complementary Fit......Page 1684
How Fit Affects Responses in Organizations......Page 1685
Direct Fit Versus Indirect Fit......Page 1686
Organizational Culture and Climate......Page 1687
Team Composition and Diversity......Page 1688
Implications......Page 1689
Possible Solutions......Page 1690
Further Reading......Page 1691
Recruitment......Page 1692
Training......Page 1693
Performance Appraisal and Feedback......Page 1694
Compensation......Page 1695
Further Reading......Page 1696
Introduction......Page 1698
Cognitive Ability Tests......Page 1700
Personality Tests......Page 1701
Job Simulations and Work Samples......Page 1702
Drug Testing......Page 1703
Fairness in Selection......Page 1704
Emerging Issues in Selection......Page 1705
Further Reading......Page 1706
Introduction......Page 1707
Play: Developmental Processes......Page 1708
Play: Sociocultural Contexts......Page 1709
Therapeutic Play......Page 1711
Further Reading......Page 1712
Glossary......Page 1713
Historical Development......Page 1714
Political Knowledge and Political Attitudes......Page 1715
Traits......Page 1716
Assimilation and Contrast Effects......Page 1717
Ideological Orientation and Values......Page 1718
Political Identity......Page 1719
Regional, National, and Supranational Identity......Page 1720
Mass Media and Politics......Page 1721
Interviewing Politicians......Page 1722
Political Discourse......Page 1723
Cognitive Factors......Page 1724
Social Factors......Page 1725
Further Reading......Page 1726
Glossary......Page 1728
Postmodernity and the ‘‘Postmodern Condition’’......Page 1729
Modern Psychology and the Analysis of Its Own Discourse......Page 1730
Examples: The Study of Emotions, Attitudes, and Memory......Page 1731
Implications for the New Role of the Psychologist......Page 1732
Cyberpsychology and the Deconstruction of Gender......Page 1733
Further Reading......Page 1734
Overview: The Need for Counseling......Page 1735
Influence of Diversity......Page 1736
Career Decision Problems......Page 1737
Family Problems......Page 1738
Anxiety......Page 1739
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1740
Further Reading......Page 1741
Glossary......Page 1742
Course of Recovery from Trauma......Page 1743
Assessment in the Wake of Trauma......Page 1745
Establishing the Presence of Trauma......Page 1746
Assessing Early Emotional Reactions to the Traumatic Event......Page 1747
Psychological Treatment of Posttraumatic Disorders......Page 1748
Further Reading......Page 1749
Power and Influence......Page 1750
Bases and Sources of Power......Page 1751
Formal Authority and Leadership......Page 1752
Models of Leadership......Page 1753
Traits, Behaviors, and Situational Models......Page 1754
Charismatic and Transformational Leadership......Page 1756
See Also the Following Articles......Page 1757
Further Reading......Page 1758
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination......Page 1759
Causes of Prejudice and Discrimination......Page 1760
The Experience of Being a Target of Prejudice and Discrimination......Page 1761
Psychological Strategies for Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination......Page 1762
Programs for Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination in Educational and Employment Settings......Page 1763
Further Reading......Page 1764
Definition......Page 1766
Privacy Mechanisms......Page 1767
Privacy Regulation as a ‘‘Cultural Universal’’......Page 1768
Viability......Page 1769
Crowding and Privacy Regulation......Page 1770
Crime and Defensible Design......Page 1772
Communication Technology and Privacy......Page 1773
Health Care Privacy......Page 1774
Further Reading......Page 1775
Glossary......Page 1777
Combinations of Efficiency and Effectiveness......Page 1778
Measuring Productivity......Page 1779
Criteria for a Good Productivity Measurement System......Page 1780
Further Reading......Page 1781
Introduction......Page 1782
Theory of Reasoned Action......Page 1783
The Theory of Planned Behavior......Page 1784
Norm Activation Theory......Page 1785
Changes in the Physical Environment......Page 1786
Financial Measures......Page 1787
Information Strategies......Page 1788
Considerations Regarding the Effectiveness of Interventions for Pro-environmental Behavior Change......Page 1789
Further Reading......Page 1790
Introduction......Page 1791
Gender Differences......Page 1792
Contextual Factors......Page 1793
Further Reading......Page 1794
Introduction......Page 1796
ITC Guidelines on Test Use......Page 1797
Test User Qualification......Page 1798
Finland......Page 1799
Further Reading......Page 1800
Glossary......Page 1801
Assessment......Page 1802
Developmental Considerations......Page 1803
Therapeutic Approaches......Page 1804
Further Reading......Page 1806
Glossary......Page 1807
Introduction......Page 1808
Physiological Arousal Regulation......Page 1809
Attention and Concentration......Page 1810
Mental Rehearsal and Imagery......Page 1811
Anxiety and Personal Meaning......Page 1812
Goal Setting......Page 1813
Communication......Page 1814
Arousal and Anxiety Regulation......Page 1815
Improving Attention and Concentration......Page 1817
Mental Imagery and Mental Rehearsal Training......Page 1818
Acquiring Emotion Regulation Skills......Page 1819
Enhancing Communication......Page 1820
Further Reading......Page 1821
Glossary......Page 1823
Important Attributes of the Field......Page 1824
Articles in This Section......Page 1826
Legal Competency......Page 1827
Forensic Mental Health Assessment in Legal Contexts......Page 1828
Child Custody......Page 1829
Children’s Testimony......Page 1830
Interviewing and Interrogation......Page 1831
Eyewitness Testimony......Page 1832
Eyewitness Identification......Page 1833
Jury Decision Making......Page 1834
Further Reading......Page 1836
Psychometric Tests Defined......Page 1837
The Measurement Model......Page 1838
Requirement of Technical Manual for All Psychometric Tests......Page 1839
Conclusions......Page 1840
Further Reading......Page 1841
Glossary......Page 1843
Immune-to-Brain Communication......Page 1844
Stress Management......Page 1845
Interventions in Cancer......Page 1846
Further Reading......Page 1847
Introduction......Page 1848
Surface Electromyography......Page 1849
Electrodermal Activity......Page 1850
The Psychological Context......Page 1851
Heart Rate......Page 1852
Psychopathological Disorders......Page 1853
Further Reading......Page 1854
Glossary......Page 1855
Assessment, Diagnosis, and Prevalence......Page 1856
Other Individual Therapies......Page 1857
Gender......Page 1858
Further Reading......Page 1859
Introduction......Page 1861
Motivation for Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minorities......Page 1862
Racial Identity......Page 1863
Multicultural Counseling Competence......Page 1864
Further Reading......Page 1865
Rape: Definition and Prevalence......Page 1866
Programs Directed at All-Male Audiences......Page 1867
Programs Directed at Mixed-Sex Audiences......Page 1868
Prevention Measures at the Societal Level......Page 1869
Conclusion......Page 1870
Further Reading......Page 1871
Introduction......Page 1872
Morphological Understandings......Page 1873
Phonic Interventions......Page 1874
Vocabulary Development and Reading Comprehension Strategies......Page 1875
Shaping Reading Behaviors......Page 1876
Motivating......Page 1877
Further Reading......Page 1878
Glossary......Page 1880
Relationship between Teaching and Learning......Page 1881
Learning to Read......Page 1882
Teaching Reading Comprehension......Page 1883
Writing......Page 1884
Individualizing Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities......Page 1885
Further Reading......Page 1886
Background......Page 1887
Social Exchange......Page 1888
Bargaining and Negotiation......Page 1889
Further Reading......Page 1890
Problems Resulting from Ineffective Employee Recruitment......Page 1891
Recruitment Strategy Development......Page 1892
Conclusion......Page 1894
Further Reading......Page 1895
Introduction......Page 1896
History and Evolution......Page 1897
Settings......Page 1898
Summary......Page 1899
Further Reading......Page 1900
Introduction......Page 1901
Negative Implications of Religion......Page 1902
Further Reading......Page 1903
Theories and Concepts......Page 1905
The Meaning of Residential Environment and Home Attachment......Page 1906
Preferences, Satisfaction, and Housing Choices......Page 1907
Methods for Assessing Preferences......Page 1908
Architectural Style......Page 1909
Designers vs Users......Page 1910
Moving Home and Attachment......Page 1911
Further Reading......Page 1912
Introduction......Page 1913
Urban Environment Quality in Experts’ and Laypersons’ Evaluations......Page 1914
Describing Residential Satisfaction and Perceived Residential Environment Quality......Page 1915
Explaining Residential Satisfaction......Page 1916
Further Reading......Page 1917
Introduction......Page 1919
Significance of the Natural-Urban Distinction......Page 1920
Environmental Context......Page 1921
Empirical Tests......Page 1922
Practical Prospects......Page 1923
Further Reading......Page 1924
Defining Sexual Risk-Taking......Page 1926
What Groups Are at High Risk for Teen Pregnancy and STIs?......Page 1928
Why Do People Engage in Risky Sex?......Page 1930
Sexual Communication Skills......Page 1931
Further Reading......Page 1932
Robotherapy: A New Era of Interactive, Nonpharmacological Interventions......Page 1933
Robots as Therapeutic Tools: Early Experiments in the Field of Robotherapy......Page 1934
Robots for Personal Assistance: Psychological and Physical Rehabilitation......Page 1935
Person-Robot Communication as Complex Interactive System......Page 1936
Further Reading......Page 1937
Robotic Psychology: On the Coexistence of Humans and Robots......Page 1938
Modeling Emotions......Page 1939
Modeling Social Behavior......Page 1940
Further Reading......Page 1941
Glossary......Page 1942
Errors: From the ‘‘Freudian Slip’’ to Taxonomies of Errors......Page 1943
Strategies of Error Prevention......Page 1945
From Engineering Control Solutions to Safety Behavior......Page 1946
Recent Approaches to Safety: The Role of Management and Organizational Climate......Page 1947
Safety-Enhancing Interventions......Page 1948
Further Reading......Page 1949
Glossary......Page 1951
Foci of School-Community Partnerships......Page 1952
Family and Student Health......Page 1953
Tolerance and Diversity......Page 1954
Community Volunteers and the Faith Community......Page 1955
Roles and Responsibilities......Page 1956
Strategies for Change......Page 1957
Further Reading......Page 1958
Introduction......Page 1960
Developing Self-Discipline......Page 1961
Using Discipline to Correct Misbehavior......Page 1962
Preventing Misbehavior with Effective Classroom Management......Page 1963
Remediating Serious Misbehavior......Page 1964
Further Reading......Page 1966
Glossary......Page 1968
Special Influences in Schools and Classrooms......Page 1969
A First Taxonomy for the Study of Stress in Schools......Page 1974
A Recent Framework for Conceptualizing Person-Environment Relations in Learning Settings......Page 1975
Schools of the Future......Page 1976
Further Reading......Page 1978
Glossary......Page 1980
Qualifying School Psychology as a Profession......Page 1981
The Elements of an Effective School and the Contributions of Applied Psychology to Effectiveness......Page 1983
What School Psychologists Do to Be Effective......Page 1986
This Section of the Encyclopedia......Page 1987
Further Reading......Page 1990
Overview......Page 1991
A Historical and Sociopolitical Perspective......Page 1992
Conclusion......Page 1993
Further Reading......Page 1994
Definition of School Violence......Page 1995
Historical Perspective......Page 1996
Effects of School Violence......Page 1997
An Integrated Approach to School Violence Prevention......Page 1998
Selected Prevention Measures......Page 1999
Further Reading......Page 2000
Definitions of Self-Confidence......Page 2001
Influence of Self-Confidence on Thoughts and Emotions......Page 2002
Sources of Self-Confidence in Athletes......Page 2003
Measuring Self-Confidence in Athletes......Page 2005
Self-Regulation......Page 2006
Further Reading......Page 2007
Glossary......Page 2009
Delay of Gratification Paradigm......Page 2010
Individual Differences......Page 2011
Summary......Page 2012
Further Reading......Page 2013
Before Puberty......Page 2014
Early Operant Learning......Page 2015
Double Standards......Page 2016
Six Basic Sex Differences......Page 2017
Double Standards......Page 2018
Early Sexual Problems......Page 2019
Common Female Problems......Page 2020
See Also the Following Articles......Page 2021
Further Reading......Page 2022
Sexual Permissiveness......Page 2023
Industrial Societies......Page 2024
Transgenderism......Page 2025
Developing Societies......Page 2026
Developing Societies......Page 2027
Future Directions......Page 2028
Further Reading......Page 2029
Prominent Cases......Page 2030
International Laws Against Sexual Harassment......Page 2031
Integrative Organizational Model......Page 2032
Incidence of Sexual Harassment......Page 2033
Men as Victims of Sexual Harassment......Page 2034
Cross-Cultural Victims......Page 2035
Consequences of Sexual Harassment......Page 2036
Types of Coping Responses......Page 2037
Prevention and Intervention......Page 2038
See Also the Following Articles......Page 2039
Further Reading......Page 2040
Social Comparison Theory......Page 2041
Research on Principles of Social Comparison......Page 2042
Forced Comparisons......Page 2043
See Also the Following Articles......Page 2044
Further Reading......Page 2045
Glossary......Page 2046
A Brief Historical Overview......Page 2047
Identification and Evaluation Potential......Page 2048
Other Integrative Models: Instrumentality, Value, and Equity......Page 2049
Implications of Social Loafing......Page 2050
Factors Related to the Organization......Page 2051
Further Reading......Page 2053
Introduction......Page 2055
Efficiency of Information Diffusion in Various Types of Networks......Page 2056
The Impact of Word-of-Mouth Communication......Page 2057
Network Influences on the Diffusion of Information Versus Adoption Decisions......Page 2058
Conclusions......Page 2059
Further Reading......Page 2060
Introduction......Page 2061
Social Skills Training Procedures......Page 2062
Social Learning Intervention Procedures......Page 2063
Effectiveness of Social Skills Interventions......Page 2064
Social Skills Acquisition Deficits with Interfering Problem Behaviors......Page 2065
Further Reading......Page 2066
Introduction......Page 2068
Different Meanings of Social Support......Page 2069
Social Support and Health......Page 2070
Support Groups and Self-Help Groups......Page 2071
Social Support in the Elderly......Page 2072
Social Support and Social Skills......Page 2073
Further Reading......Page 2074
Glossary......Page 2075
Introduction......Page 2076
Development of Spatial Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Effort......Page 2077
Spatial Cognition and Spatial Representation: Two Sides of the Same Coin......Page 2078
Spatial Cognition in Animals......Page 2079
The Neurobiology of Spatial Cognition......Page 2080
Sex-Related Differences in Spatial Cognition......Page 2081
Spatial Cognition without the Benefit of Sight......Page 2082
New Frontiers in Spatial Cognition Research......Page 2083
Further Reading......Page 2084
Introduction......Page 2085
The Rise of the Medical Model and the ‘‘Within Child’’ Deficit Approach to Special Education......Page 2086
Classification and Labeling......Page 2087
Identification Processes......Page 2088
Placement and the Continuum of Services......Page 2089
Physical and Neurological Disabilities......Page 2090
Developmental Disabilities......Page 2091
Medical and Technological Progress......Page 2092
International Perspectives......Page 2093
Further Reading......Page 2094
Defining Sport Psychology......Page 2095
How Sport Psychologists Work......Page 2096
Sport and Competition......Page 2097
Individual and Team Excellence......Page 2098
High-Quality Practice......Page 2099
Performance Related Experiences and Athletic Excellence......Page 2100
Resources as Performance Enhancement Strategies......Page 2101
Barriers to Athletic Excellence......Page 2102
Athletic Career Demands, Coping Resources, and Barriers......Page 2103
Athletes’ Successful Transitions and Crisis Transitions......Page 2104
From Athletic to Personal Excellence......Page 2106
Conclusion: Future Directions in Sport Psychology......Page 2107
Further Reading......Page 2108
Introduction......Page 2110
The Sociocultural Approach......Page 2111
Measuring Stereotypes......Page 2112
Loss of Individual Information......Page 2113
Stereotype Change......Page 2114
Further Reading......Page 2115
Introduction......Page 2116
Chronic Stressors......Page 2117
Physical Illness......Page 2118
Personal Diatheses......Page 2120
Adaptive Coping......Page 2121
Further Reading......Page 2123
Evolution of the Structure of Interests......Page 2125
Alternative Approaches......Page 2126
Extensions of the Circular Model: Spherical Structure......Page 2127
Current Research......Page 2128
Further Reading......Page 2129
Introduction......Page 2130
Study Skills in High- Versus Low-Achieving Students......Page 2131
Four Clusters of Study Skills......Page 2132
Conclusions and Future Directions......Page 2133
Further Reading......Page 2134
Categories......Page 2135
Norms......Page 2136
Further Reading......Page 2137
Glossary......Page 2138
Theories and Models Related to Career Development of Athletes......Page 2139
Career Intervention Programs for Athletes......Page 2142
Conclusion......Page 2143
Further Reading......Page 2144
Glossary......Page 2145
Family Factors......Page 2146
Most Common Methods of Suicide......Page 2147
Role of Schools in Suicide Prevention......Page 2148
What if the Death Was a Suicide?......Page 2149
Status of State and Individual Initiatives......Page 2150
Summary......Page 2152
Further Reading......Page 2153
Large Complex Sociotechnical Systems......Page 2154
The Role of Psychology in System Safety......Page 2156
Safety Culture......Page 2157
Further Reading......Page 2158
Introduction......Page 2159
A General View of Teaching......Page 2160
Teacher Characteristics......Page 2161
Moving from Effective Teaching to Excellent Teaching......Page 2162
Further Reading......Page 2163
The Psychological Concept of Territoriality......Page 2164
Methods of Measurement......Page 2165
Dispute Resolution......Page 2166
Further Reading......Page 2167
Overview......Page 2168
Conceptions of Test Anxiety......Page 2169
Self-Report Instruments......Page 2170
Practical Uses in Applied Settings......Page 2171
Mediating Effects......Page 2172
Emotion-Focused Interventions......Page 2173
Clinical Considerations......Page 2177
Consideration of Individual Differences......Page 2178
Further Reading......Page 2179
Introduction......Page 2180
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Problems......Page 2181
The Cube Model......Page 2182
Three Ways to Reduce Human Errors in Road Transport......Page 2183
Further Reading......Page 2184
Glossary......Page 2186
Identifying and Improving Attitudes......Page 2187
Others......Page 2188
Experiential Techniques......Page 2189
Program Evaluation and Dimensions of Success......Page 2190
Further Reading......Page 2191
Traits as Human Characteristics of Individual Differences......Page 2192
The Big Five Dimensions of Personality......Page 2193
Traits, Heritability, and Genetics......Page 2194
The Big Five and Organizational Behavior......Page 2195
Further Reading......Page 2196
Conceptualizing Transfer......Page 2197
Exemplifications......Page 2198
The Question of Facilitated Transfer......Page 2199
Taxonomies of Transfer......Page 2200
Models of Transfer......Page 2201
Information Processing Model......Page 2202
Conceptual and Instructional Shifts......Page 2203
The Validity of Transfer Thinking......Page 2204
Counterintuitive Nature of Transfer......Page 2205
Dispositional Characteristics and Aspects of Transfer......Page 2206
Future Empirical Research and Theory......Page 2207
Further Reading......Page 2208
Glossary......Page 2209
Translation and Cross-Cultural Research......Page 2210
Back-Translation......Page 2211
Emics and Etics......Page 2212
Writing Translatable English......Page 2213
Translation Style......Page 2214
Translation and Qualitative Studies......Page 2215
The Impact of Globalization......Page 2216
Conclusion......Page 2217
Further Reading......Page 2218
Introduction......Page 2219
Driver Distraction......Page 2221
Driver Vision......Page 2222
Conspicuity......Page 2223
Further Reading......Page 2224
Introduction......Page 2226
Properties......Page 2227
Effects on Private Car Use......Page 2228
Car-Use Reduction and Information Technology......Page 2229
Further Reading......Page 2230
Introduction......Page 2231
Multidimensional Conceptualizations......Page 2232
Trust Measures......Page 2233
The Benefits of Trust......Page 2235
Collaboration and Cooperation within and between Organizations......Page 2236
Fragility of Trust......Page 2237
Implications for Practice......Page 2238
Summary......Page 2239
Further Reading......Page 2240
Introduction......Page 2241
Urban Living Conditions......Page 2242
Specific Urban Behavior......Page 2243
From Appropriation to Urban Identity......Page 2244
The Sociophysical Interface......Page 2245
People-Environment Congruity: Feeling at Home......Page 2246
Neighborhood Revitalization......Page 2247
Homogeneity and Legibility of the Urban Space......Page 2248
Management of Urban Diversity......Page 2249
Sustainable Cities......Page 2250
Further Reading......Page 2251
Introduction......Page 2252
Levels of Analysis......Page 2253
Individual-Level Dimensions of Values......Page 2254
Attitudes and Behavior......Page 2255
Culture-Level Dimensions of Values......Page 2256
Relations among Culture-Level Dimensions......Page 2257
Correlates of Culture-Level Values......Page 2258
Further Reading......Page 2259
Importance......Page 2260
Skills Needed for Employment......Page 2261
Assessment Models......Page 2262
Conclusion......Page 2263
Further Reading......Page 2264
Glossary......Page 2265
Interest as a Construct often Poorly Defined......Page 2266
Homogeneous Content Scales......Page 2267
UNIACT Interest Inventory......Page 2268
Trends in Interest Measurement......Page 2269
Further Reading......Page 2270
Person-Environment Fit Model......Page 2272
Vocational Personalities and Work Environments......Page 2273
Vocational Personality Types......Page 2274
Consistency and Congruence......Page 2275
Growth......Page 2276
Specification......Page 2277
Establishment......Page 2279
Consolidating......Page 2280
Job Satisfaction......Page 2281
Maintenance......Page 2282
Disengagement......Page 2283
Further Reading......Page 2284
Glossary......Page 2285
The Hierarchical Structure of Subjective Well-Being......Page 2286
Problems with Self-Reports......Page 2287
Demographic and Situational Characteristics......Page 2288
Circumstances in Context......Page 2289
Positive Social Outcomes......Page 2290
Further Reading......Page 2291
Introduction......Page 2293
Reproduction-Oriented Limits......Page 2294
Life Cycle: Differential Health Characteristics of Elderly Women......Page 2295
Women’s Health on the Internet......Page 2296
Further Reading......Page 2298
Glossary......Page 2299
Work Adjustment Assessment......Page 2300
Further Reading......Page 2301
Glossary......Page 2302
Definitions of Work and Family......Page 2303
Mechanisms Linking Work and Family......Page 2304
Negative Effects of Work on Family Life......Page 2305
Positive Effects of Work on Family Life......Page 2306
Negative Effects of Family on Work Life......Page 2307
Positive Effects of Family on Work Life......Page 2308
Organizational Actions to Help Individuals Manage Work-Family Relationships......Page 2309
Flexible Work Arrangements......Page 2310
Individual Actions to Manage Work-Family Relationships......Page 2311
Further Reading......Page 2312
Introduction......Page 2313
A Historical Perspective on Working Environments......Page 2314
Some Recent Studies on Office Environments......Page 2316
General Models Describing Environment-Behavior Relations in the Workplace......Page 2317
Further Reading......Page 2320
Needs......Page 2322
Values......Page 2323
Job Satisfaction......Page 2324
Further Reading......Page 2325
Work Values......Page 2327
Validity......Page 2328
Further Reading......Page 2329
Glossary......Page 2330
Individual-Level Perspective......Page 2331
Intervention Approaches......Page 2332
Intervention Approaches......Page 2333
Intervention Approaches......Page 2334
Further Reading......Page 2335
Introduction......Page 2336
Team Composition......Page 2337
Team Development......Page 2339
Team Processes and Performance......Page 2340
Conclusion......Page 2342
Further Reading......Page 2343
Glossary......Page 2344
Related Processes and Developmental Stages......Page 2345
Primary School Grades......Page 2346
Upper Elementary School Grades......Page 2348
Role of Teacher Knowledge......Page 2349
Further Reading......Page 2350
The Context of Youth Employment......Page 2352
Negative Effects of Youth Employment......Page 2353
Further Reading......Page 2354




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