Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry by William J. Lennarz, M. Daniel Lane, Paul Modrich, Jack Dixon, Ernesto Carafoli, John Exton, Don Cleveland



Bibliographic Information:
Title: Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry by William J. Lennarz, M. Daniel Lane, Paul Modrich, Jack Dixon, Ernesto Carafoli, John Exton, Don Cleveland
Editor: William J. Lennarz, M. Daniel Lane, Paul Modrich, Jack Dixon, Ernesto Carafoli, John Exton, Don Cleveland
Edition: 1st ed
Publisher: Elsevier
Length: 843 pages
Size: 20.72 MB
Language: English
Format: .pdf

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Table of Contents:
Cover Page......Page 843
Editors-in-Chief......Page 777
Associate Editors......Page 779
Preface......Page 782
Notes on the Subject Index......Page 783
Volume 1......Page 784
Volume 2......Page 792
Volume 3......Page 800
Volume 4......Page 808
Lipids, Carbohydrates, Membranes and Membrane Proteins......Page 813
Metabolism, Vitamins and Hormones......Page 815
Cell Architecture and Function......Page 817
Protein/Enzyme Structure Function and Degradation......Page 820
Bioenergetics......Page 823
Molecular Biology......Page 829
Signaling......Page 835
Techniques and Methodology......Page 842
Volume 4 (S-Z)......Page 0
Elongation Factor EF-Tu......Page 1
The Ternary Complex of EF-Tu......Page 3
Antibiotic Action on EF-Tu......Page 4
Further Reading......Page 5
Eicosanoid Action......Page 6
Prostaglandin (PG) Receptors......Page 7
Glossary......Page 8
Further Reading......Page 9
Soluble Elastin......Page 10
Posttranscriptional Regulation......Page 11
Further Reading......Page 12
Deactivation......Page 13
Cannabinoid Receptors......Page 14
Further Reading......Page 15
Dynamin......Page 16
Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis......Page 17
Fate of Internalized Membrane and Content......Page 18
Further Reading......Page 19
Protein Synthesis and Folding in the ER......Page 20
Distinct ER Chaperone Networks are Involved in the GERAD Process......Page 21
See Also the Following Articles......Page 22
Further Reading......Page 23
Fermentation......Page 24
Electron Transport Phosphorylation in Anaerobic Respiration......Page 26
Decarboxylation of Dicarboxylic Acids......Page 28
Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Prokaryotes......Page 29
Further Reading......Page 30
Transition-State Analogues......Page 31
Noncatalytic Site Inhibitors......Page 34
Polyamine Synthesis......Page 35
Conclusion......Page 36
Further Reading......Page 37
The Rapid Equilibrium Assumption......Page 38
A More Realistic Unireactant Reaction Sequence......Page 39
The Velocity Curve and its Linear Forms......Page 40
Velocity Equations for Some Bireactant Mechanisms......Page 41
Further Reading......Page 44
Stereoselectivity, Stereospecificity, and Stereochemical Course of Enzymatic Reactions......Page 45
Analysis of Steric Course to Probe an Enzymatic Reaction Pathway......Page 47
Stereoselectivity Can Probe Metal-Nucleotide or Enzyme-Substrate Interactions at the Transition State......Page 48
Further Reading......Page 49
The Structure of ErbB Receptors......Page 51
ErbB Receptor Substrates......Page 52
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis......Page 53
Further Reading......Page 54
The Partial Reactions of the Catalytic and Transport Cycles......Page 56
Ca2+ Binding and Catalytic Activation......Page 58
Physiological Regulation and Experimental Inhibitors......Page 59
Further Reading......Page 60
Details of the Ca2+-Binding Sites......Page 61
Rearrangement of the Transmembrane Helices......Page 63
Role of the Large Conformational Movements......Page 64
Further Reading......Page 65
Mechanism......Page 66
Processivity......Page 68
FEN-1/5 Nucleases......Page 69
Replication Fidelity......Page 70
Further Reading......Page 71
Subunit Composition......Page 73
F0......Page 75
Binding Change Model......Page 76
Rotational Catalysis......Page 77
Proton Translocation by F0......Page 78
Further Reading......Page 79
FAK Activation and Signaling Mechanism......Page 80
Cellular Responses to FAK Signaling......Page 81
Cellular Responses to PYK2 Signaling......Page 82
Further Reading......Page 83
Perilipin......Page 85
Perilipin Function......Page 86
Adipocyte Lipolysis Catalyzed by Hormone-Sensitive Lipase......Page 87
Further Reading......Page 88
Mitochondrial Uptake of Fatty Acids......Page 90
Beta-Oxidation in Mitochondria......Page 91
Regulation of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation......Page 92
Alpha-Oxidation and -Oxidation......Page 93
Further Reading......Page 94
PPARDelta......Page 95
The FFAR Family of Receptors......Page 96
Further Reading......Page 97
De novo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis of Saturated Fatty Acids......Page 99
Nutritional Regulation of Lipogenic Gene Expression......Page 100
Suppression of Lipogenic Gene Expression by Omega-6 and -3 Fatty Acids......Page 101
Arachidonic and Docosahexenoic Acid Synthesis......Page 102
Further Reading......Page 103
Plant-Type 2Fe Fds......Page 104
Mitochondrial-Type 2Fe Fds......Page 105
Further Reading......Page 106
Molecular Structure......Page 107
Catalytic Mechanism......Page 108
Root FNR......Page 109
Heterotrophic Glutathione Reductase-Type FNRs......Page 110
Further Reading......Page 111
Genes......Page 112
Physiologic Actions......Page 113
FGF-4......Page 114
FGFR1......Page 115
FGFR4......Page 116
Further Reading......Page 117
Redox Properties......Page 118
Spectroscopic Properties......Page 119
Oxygenases......Page 120
Medical Significance......Page 121
Further Reading......Page 122
Expansion of the ER Bilayer during Membrane Biogenesis......Page 123
Aminophospholipid Flippases/Translocases, Floppases, Scramblases, and Phospholipid Asymmetry......Page 124
Protein O- and C-Mannosylation......Page 125
Further Reading......Page 126
The Molecular Organization of Focal Adhesions......Page 128
The Cytoskeletal Domain......Page 129
The Submembrane Plaque......Page 130
Diversity of Cell-Matrix Adhesion Sites......Page 131
Focal Adhesions and Mechanosensitivity......Page 132
Further Reading......Page 133
Introduction......Page 134
The Mitochondrial Production of O2.- and H2O2......Page 135
The Mitochondrial Production of .NO......Page 136
The Physiological Role of the Mitochondrial Production of O2.-, H2O2, and .NO......Page 139
Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptosis......Page 140
Glossary......Page 141
Further Reading......Page 142
Genetics......Page 143
Therapeutic Intervention......Page 144
Further Reading......Page 145
Structure of RGS Proteins......Page 146
Selectivity of RGS Action......Page 147
Significance of RGS Action......Page 148
RGS Proteins as Drug Targets......Page 149
Further Reading......Page 150
Specificity of GRK Interaction with GPCRs......Page 151
Role of GRKs in Disease......Page 153
Role of Arrestins in GPCR Endocytosis......Page 154
Further Reading......Page 155
Cellular Functions of G12/G13......Page 157
Proteins Directly Interacting with G12/G13......Page 158
Glossary......Page 159
Further Reading......Page 160
Anatomical Localization and Functional Heterogeneity......Page 161
Insights Gained from Transgenic Mice......Page 162
Subcellular Localization, Associated Proteins, and Synaptic Plasticity......Page 163
Ion Channel/Sites for Action of Allosteric Blockers and Enhancers......Page 164
Further Reading......Page 165
GABAB-Receptor Structure and Function......Page 166
GABAB-Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators......Page 167
Further Reading......Page 168
Carbohydrate Structures......Page 170
Tissues......Page 171
Cancer and Metastasis......Page 172
Further Reading......Page 173
Serial Methods for Global Analysis of Gene Expression......Page 174
Microarray Target Preparation and Hybridization......Page 175
Microarray Data Analysis Methods......Page 176
Ontology Analysis......Page 177
Further Reading......Page 178
Signaling through GBetaGamma......Page 180
Gi......Page 181
Gt (Transducin)......Page 182
Glossary......Page 183
Further Reading......Page 184
Formation of Megamitochondria......Page 185
Restoration to Normal Size......Page 186
Further Reading......Page 187
O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT)......Page 188
Function......Page 189
See Also The Following Articles......Page 190
Further Reading......Page 191
Glucagon......Page 192
Physiological Actions......Page 193
PGDP Receptors......Page 194
Further Reading......Page 195
The Enzymes of Gluconeogenesis......Page 196
Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK)......Page 197
The Role of Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Control of Gluconeogenesis......Page 198
Substrate Delivery to the Liver and Kidney......Page 199
Alteration in Gene Expression......Page 200
Glossary......Page 201
Further Reading......Page 202
Preferential Utilizationof Carbohydrate......Page 203
Functional Properties......Page 204
Structural Architecture......Page 205
Further Reading......Page 206
Facilitative Glucose Transporters......Page 207
GLUT1......Page 208
GLUT4......Page 209
Further Reading......Page 210
Pore Structure......Page 212
Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Subunits and Molecular Diversity......Page 213
AMPA Receptors......Page 214
Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Pharmacology and Physiology......Page 215
Kainate Receptor Physiology......Page 216
Further Reading......Page 217
Fast Excitatory and Neuromodulatory Actions of Glutamate......Page 219
mGlu Receptors Play Diverse Roles in Regulating Neuronal Excitability and Synaptic Transmission......Page 220
Glossary......Page 221
Further Reading......Page 222
Enzymology and Kinetics......Page 223
PGPX......Page 225
Future Perspectives......Page 226
Further Reading......Page 227
Clinical Significance of Glycated Hb......Page 228
Glycation of Other Amino Acids and Biomolecules......Page 229
Glycoxidation......Page 230
Aging......Page 232
Diabetes......Page 233
Further Reading......Page 234
Synaptic Versus Extrasynaptic Inhibition......Page 236
Mixed GABA and Glycinergic Synapses......Page 237
Ion Channel Function......Page 238
Allosteric Modulation of the GlyR......Page 240
Further Reading......Page 241
Metabolic Role......Page 243
Role in Muscle or Exercise......Page 245
Further Reading......Page 246
Glycogen Degradation......Page 248
Control of Glycogen Metabolism......Page 249
Defects in Glycogen Metabolism and their Consequences......Page 250
Type II......Page 251
Type IX......Page 252
Further Reading......Page 253
Regulation of GSK-3......Page 254
A Primer on GSK-3 Substrates......Page 256
Neurological Diseases......Page 257
Further Reading......Page 258
Cell Adhesion through Clustered GSLs......Page 260
Mouse Melanoma B16 Cell Adhesion to Mouse Endothelial Cells Through GM3-to-LacCer or GM3-to-Gg3Cer Interaction......Page 261
Rainbow Trout Sperm Binding to Egg Mediated by (KDN)GM3 Interaction with Gg3-Like Epitope......Page 262
Adhesion of Neutrophils or Myelogenous Leukemia HL60 Cells to E-Selectin Through Fucosyl-poly-LacNAc Ganglioside.........Page 263
Further Reading......Page 264
Three Stages of the Glycolytic Pathway......Page 265
Anaerobic Glycolysis is a Type of Fermentation......Page 266
ATP Turnover......Page 267
Cancer......Page 268
See Also The Following Articles......Page 269
Further Reading......Page 270
N-Glycan Processing Reactions in the Endoplasmic Reticulum......Page 271
The UDP-Glc:glycoprotein Glucosyltransferase......Page 273
The Quality Control Mechanism of Glycoprotein Folding......Page 274
Further Reading......Page 275
O-Fucose on Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Repeats......Page 276
O-Mannose......Page 277
Functions of O-Glycans......Page 278
The Role of O-Fucose in Regulating Signal Transduction......Page 279
Glossary......Page 280
Further Reading......Page 281
Transfer of the preformed oligosaccharide unit to newly synthesized protein......Page 282
Glycosidase Digestion in the ER Lumen......Page 283
Remodeling by Golgi apparatus glycosidases and glycosyltransferases......Page 284
Digestion with purified endo- and exo-glycosidases......Page 286
Chemical and physical analysis of N-glycans......Page 287
Radiolabeling and Tagging of N-Linked Glycoproteins......Page 288
Monoglucosylated Oligosaccharides in ER Quality Control......Page 289
Further Reading......Page 290
O-Linked Glycans......Page 292
Arrangement of Hyp residues dictates the type of glycans......Page 293
Structural studies......Page 294
Further Reading......Page 295
Glycosylation......Page 296
Glycosylation of CF Airway Epithelial Cells......Page 297
Glycosylation of CF Airway Mucins......Page 298
Further Reading......Page 299
Biosynthetic Overview......Page 301
Scope of the Disorders......Page 302
Therapy for CDG......Page 303
glossary......Page 305
Further Reading......Page 306
Outline of the Biosynthetic Pathway......Page 307
GPI-Anchoring in Mammals, Parasitic Protozoa, and Yeast......Page 308
Functions of GPIs......Page 309
Further Reading......Page 310
Protein Glycosylation......Page 311
Vesicular Transport at the Golgi Complex......Page 312
Protein Aggregation as a Sorting Mechanism......Page 313
Further Reading......Page 314
PLCBeta Activation and Calcium Mobilization are Downstream Responses to Gq Activation......Page 315
Gq in Cardiovascular Disease, Platelet Aggregation, and Cerebellum Development......Page 317
Gq Family Members are Functionally Complementary to Each Other......Page 318
Further Reading......Page 319
Types of c-Type Cytochromes in Green Sulfur Bacteria......Page 320
Cytochrome c-551 (SoxA)......Page 321
Further Reading......Page 322
Size and Internal Structure......Page 324
Models of Chlorophyll Organization......Page 325
Further Reading......Page 328
The Homodimeric P840-Reaction Center - Composition, Structure, and Electron Transfer......Page 330
Secondary Electron Donors and Acceptors......Page 333
Further Reading......Page 334
Regulation of G Proteins by Guanine Nucleotides......Page 336
GAlphaolf......Page 338
Cholera......Page 339
Further Reading......Page 340
Stress Detection and Response......Page 341
The HSR Output......Page 342
The Unfolded Protein Response......Page 343
Glossary......Page 344
Further Reading......Page 345
Erythropoietin Receptor......Page 346
Thrombopoietin Receptor......Page 348
Signal Transduction through the GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 Receptor......Page 349
Further Reading......Page 350
Myoglobin......Page 352
Hemoglobin......Page 353
Peroxidases......Page 355
Catalases......Page 356
Cytochromes P450 Enzymes......Page 357
Cytochromes......Page 358
Further Reading......Page 359
Formation of 5-Aminolevulinate......Page 360
From ALA to Uroporphyrinogen III......Page 361
Regulation of the Heme Biosynthetic Pathway/Heme Biosynthesis......Page 362
Disorders of the Heme Biosynthetic Pathway......Page 363
Further Reading......Page 364
HGF/SF Receptor......Page 365
Structure......Page 366
Biological Activity......Page 367
The HGF/SF Receptor in Human Tumors......Page 368
Further Reading......Page 369
Diversity of Hexokinases and Glucokinases......Page 370
Classification and Evolution of Hexokinases......Page 371
Three-Dimensional Structure......Page 372
Sigmoidal Kinetics......Page 373
Glossary......Page 374
Further Reading......Page 375
H1 Agonists......Page 376
H1-Antagonists......Page 377
Histamine H3-Receptors......Page 378
Splice Variants of the H3-Receptor......Page 379
Further Reading......Page 380
Gag/Pol Polyprotein and Viral Assembly......Page 382
Mode of Inhibitor Binding......Page 383
HIV PR as a Model System for Analysis of Protein Structure/Function......Page 384
Further Reading......Page 385
Functional Implications of RT Structures......Page 386
Structural Basis of HIV-1 RT Drug Resistance......Page 388
Further Reading......Page 389
The Role of Recombination in Meiosis......Page 391
Initiation......Page 392
Gene Conversion......Page 393
See Also the Following Articles......Page 394
Further Reading......Page 395
Origin of the ‘‘Reversed-Phase’’ Term......Page 396
Supports for Small Tryptic Peptide Separations......Page 397
Mass Spectrometry Applications......Page 398
Guard Columns......Page 399
Size Separation......Page 400
Further Reading......Page 401
Specialized Light Microscopy Techniques......Page 402
Electronic Light Detectors......Page 403
CCD Sensors......Page 404
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy......Page 405
Digital Image Characteristics......Page 406
Further Reading......Page 407
IgG Receptors......Page 408
Receptor-Binding Sites in Immunoglobulin......Page 409
Non-Leukocyte FcRs......Page 410
Key Events in the Analysis of FcR......Page 412
Further Reading......Page 413
Iron......Page 414
Copper......Page 415
Rare Uses of Inorganic Elements......Page 416
Further Reading......Page 417
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases......Page 418
PTEN and Myotubularin: PTP-Like Phosphoinositide Phosphatases......Page 419
PTEN......Page 420
Myotubularin......Page 421
Further Reading......Page 423
Inositol Phosphate Nomenclature......Page 424
Enzyme Nomenclature and Metabolic Interrelationships......Page 425
Further Reading......Page 426
The Beta-Cell Glucokinase Glucose Sensor and the Threshold for GSIR......Page 427
Model Experiments to Illustrate the Operation of the TPW and the APW......Page 428
Amino Acids and Fatty Acids as Glucose-Dependent Stimuli of Beta Cells......Page 429
Neuroendocrine Modification of Fuel-Stimulated Insulin Release......Page 430
Beta-Cell Therapy in T2DM and Hyperinsulinemia......Page 431
Further Reading......Page 432
Composition and Biosynthesis......Page 433
Autophosphorylation and Kinase Activation......Page 434
Signaling Cascades......Page 435
‘‘Genetics’’ and IR-IGF1R Comparisons......Page 436
Further Reading......Page 437
General Features of Integrin Signaling......Page 438
Integrin Activation......Page 439
Integrins in Adhesion Sites......Page 440
Contributions to Cellular Phenotypes......Page 441
Further Reading......Page 442
Receptor Structure......Page 443
Effects of Signaling Through the IFN-Gamma Receptor......Page 444
Expression of IFN-Alpha/Beta and Their Receptor......Page 445
Signal Transduction......Page 446
Glossary......Page 447
Further Reading......Page 448
Expression and Subcellular Localization......Page 449
Molecular Interactions......Page 450
Structural Properties......Page 452
Further Reading......Page 453
Assembly and Structure......Page 455
Regulation......Page 456
Type V Lamins......Page 458
Apoptosis......Page 459
See Also the Following Articles......Page 460
Further Reading......Page 461
Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose......Page 462
cADPR and Activation of Different RYR Isoforms......Page 463
Glossary......Page 464
Further Reading......Page 465
NAADP-Induced Ca2+-Release in Invertebrates and Plants......Page 466
Metabolism of NAADP......Page 468
Further Reading......Page 469
Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels......Page 470
Second Messenger-Gated and Sensory Ion Channels......Page 471
Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels and their Relatives......Page 472
Structure and Function......Page 473
Further Reading......Page 474
Structure of IP3 Receptors......Page 475
IP3 Receptors are Regulated by IP3 and Ca2+......Page 477
Further Reading......Page 478
Properties......Page 479
Structure......Page 480
Functions......Page 482
General Overview......Page 483
Biogenesis of Fe-S Proteins in Bacteria......Page 484
Biogenesis of Fe-S Proteins in Eukaryotes......Page 485
Further Reading......Page 486
JAK Kinases......Page 487
The STATs......Page 490
Glossary......Page 491
Further Reading......Page 492
Keratin Gene Clusters Reflect Tissue Expression: Implications for Keratin Evolution......Page 493
Keratin Gene Expression Mirrors Epithelial Differentiation: The Case of Skin......Page 495
Keratin Gene Expression in Thick Epidermis......Page 497
Scaffolding Components of Signaling Pathways and Other Functions......Page 498
Glossary......Page 499
Further Reading......Page 500
Synthesis of Ketone Bodies......Page 501
Ketone Body Utilization......Page 502
Further Reading......Page 503
Kinesin Superfamily Proteins......Page 504
Kinesin Superfamily Proteins......Page 505
Kinesin Superfamily Proteins......Page 506
Kinesin Superfamily Proteins......Page 507
Kinesin Superfamily Proteins......Page 510
Kinesin Superfamily Proteins......Page 511
Further Reading......Page 512
Kinesins as Regulators of Microtubule Dynamics: A Brief Historical Overview......Page 513
Kin I Kinesins: Mechanism of Action......Page 514
Physiological Roles of Microtubule-Depolymerizing Kinesins......Page 516
Further Reading......Page 517
Wave/Particle Dualism......Page 518
Activation Energy and Transition State Theory......Page 519
Isotope Effects from Zero-Point Energies......Page 520
An Example From Glucose Oxidase Catalysis......Page 521
Further Reading......Page 523
Historical Perspective......Page 524
LacI Function......Page 525
LacI Structural Characteristics......Page 526
Implications for Complex Organisms......Page 528
Further Reading......Page 529
Molecular Properties......Page 530
Functions......Page 531
Applications......Page 533
Further Reading......Page 534
Central Mechanisms of Leptin Action......Page 536
Adipose Tissue as a Target of the SNS......Page 537
Regulation of Leptin Expression......Page 538
Leptin Resistance and Obesity......Page 539
Further Reading......Page 540
LexA Autoregulation......Page 541
LexA Mutants and Their Phenotype......Page 542
Other Bacterial LexA Regulatory Systems......Page 543
Further Reading......Page 544
Calcium Signaling in Neurons......Page 546
Physiological and Pharmacological Properties of Glutamate Receptors......Page 548
AMPA Receptor Genes and Protein Structure......Page 550
KA Receptor Genes and Protein Structure......Page 551
NMDA Receptor Genes and Protein Structure......Page 552
mGluR Genes and Proteins......Page 553
Glutamate Receptors, Ca2+-Signaling, and Synaptic Plasticity......Page 554
Glossary......Page 555
Further Reading......Page 556
Early GABAA Receptor Biochemistry......Page 557
Molecular Biology of the GABAA Receptor......Page 558
In Vitro Studies......Page 559
Subtly Altered Receptor Subunits Cause Diseases......Page 560
Further Reading......Page 561
The Protein Components......Page 562
The Pigment Components......Page 563
See Also the Following Articles......Page 564
Further Reading......Page 565
Hydrolysis Mechanism and Specificity......Page 566
Physiochemical Importance of Interfaces......Page 567
Structural Adaptation of Lipases at Interfaces......Page 568
Lipase Cofactors......Page 569
Further Reading......Page 570
Membrane Proteins and Bilayers......Page 571
Physical State of Bilayer Lipids......Page 572
Transverse Lipid Movements......Page 573
Further Reading......Page 574
Fatty Acylation......Page 575
Myristoylated and Farnesylated Proteins......Page 576
Membrane Targeting and Protein Function......Page 577
Further Reading......Page 578
Lipid Phase Behavior......Page 579
Functions of Rafts......Page 581
Further Reading......Page 582
Apolipoprotein B Lipoprotein Metabolism......Page 583
HDL Metabolism and Reverse Cholesterol Transport......Page 586
Pathologies of Lipoprotein Metabolism......Page 587
Further Reading......Page 588
Weak Hydrogen Bonds......Page 589
Bond Lengths......Page 590
Serine Proteases......Page 591
Glossary......Page 592
Further Reading......Page 593
Therapy......Page 594
Genetics......Page 595
Further Reading......Page 596
Plasma Membrane Receptors......Page 597
See Also The Following Articles......Page 598
Further Reading......Page 599
Clinical Relevance of MDR1......Page 600
The Conundrum of MDR1: Broad Specificity with High Affinity......Page 601
ABCG2......Page 602
Analogous Systems in Other Organisms......Page 603
Further Reading......Page 604
Mitosis......Page 605
Meiosis......Page 606
After Prophase I......Page 607
Loops and Axes......Page 608
Synaptonemal Complexes......Page 609
Homologous Recombination during Meiosis......Page 610
Further Reading......Page 611
Pigmentation......Page 612
Energy Homeostasis and Other CNS Actions......Page 613
See Also the Following Articles......Page 614
Further Reading......Page 615
Membrane Fusion......Page 616
Proteins......Page 617
Mechanistic Pathways......Page 618
Glossary......Page 620
Further Reading......Page 621
Diffusion through Pores or Channels (Restricted Diffusion)......Page 622
Facilitated Diffusion......Page 623
Active Transport......Page 624
Further Reading......Page 625
Discovery of the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger......Page 626
An Expanding Gene Family......Page 627
Expression of NCX and NCKX in Mammals......Page 628
Functional Properties......Page 629
Physiological Relevance......Page 630
Further Reading......Page 631
Fermentation......Page 632
Anaerobic Respiration......Page 633
Oxygen Respiration......Page 634
Special Mechanisms in Archaeal Energy Transduction......Page 636
Methanogenesis......Page 637
Respiratory Complexes......Page 638
Glossary......Page 639
Further Reading......Page 640
Advantages of Metabolite Channeling......Page 641
The Creatine Kinase/Phosphocreatine Circuit or Shuttle......Page 642
Channeling in Energy Transducing Mitochondrial Microcompartments......Page 643
Mitochondrial CK and the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore......Page 645
Further Reading......Page 646
Gelatinases......Page 652
Structural Chemistry......Page 655
Activation by Chemical and Physical Means......Page 656
Activity and Substrate Specificity......Page 657
TIMPs......Page 658
Glossary......Page 659
Further Reading......Page 660
The Physical Chromosome......Page 661
Teasing Apart Mitotic Chromosomes......Page 662
Identification of Other Proteins Playing Roles in Chromosome Dynamics......Page 663
Reversing the Process: Postsegregation Decondensation......Page 664
Mitotic Chromosome Architecture Is Coordinated with DNA Replication and Repair......Page 665
Further Reading......Page 666
Metal Sites......Page 647
Structural Sites......Page 648
Metalloprotease Inhibition......Page 649
Further Reading......Page 650
Histone Code......Page 667
Methyl-CpG-Binding Proteins......Page 668
MBD4......Page 669
Further Reading......Page 670
MAP1A and MAP1B......Page 671
MAP2A, MAP2B, and MAP2C......Page 672
Control of Microtubule Dynamics......Page 674
Analysis of Transgenic and Knockout Mice: Relation of MAPs to Neurodegenerative Diseases......Page 675
Further Reading......Page 676
Anti-M1 AMAs and Cardiolipin......Page 678
Anti-M2 AMAs......Page 679
Anti-M4 AMAs and Sulfite Oxidase......Page 681
AMAs Arising from Tissue Damage......Page 682
Further Reading......Page 683
OM Channels......Page 684
IM Channels......Page 685
Involvement of Mitochondrial Channels in Cell Death Mechanisms......Page 686
Further Reading......Page 687
Discovery of Mitochondrial DNA......Page 688
Sequence and Gene Content......Page 689
Outlook......Page 690
Further Reading......Page 691
Yeast as a Model Organism for the Study of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function......Page 692
Transcription......Page 693
Translation......Page 695
See Also The Following Articles......Page 696
Further Reading......Page 697
Genome Size Reduction and Accelerated Evolution in Early Mitochondrial History......Page 698
Ongoing Gene Transfer to the Nucleus......Page 699
Limitation of Gene Transfer to the Nucleus......Page 700
Animal mtDNAs......Page 701
Glossary......Page 702
Further Reading......Page 703
Structure, Biology, and Origins......Page 704
MtDNA Variation and Human Adaptation to Cold......Page 707
Somatic mtDNA Mutations in Aging......Page 709
Further Reading......Page 710
Structure of Mitochondrial Genomes......Page 711
Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA between Generations......Page 712
Further Reading......Page 713
Mitochondrial Membranes and Compartments......Page 715
Functional Implications of the Cristae Junctions......Page 716
Inner Membrane Fusion and Fission......Page 717
See Also the Following Articles......Page 718
Further Reading......Page 719
Structure......Page 720
Extension of the Mitochondrial Carrier Family......Page 721
Driving Forces for Transport......Page 722
Functional Models for Mitochondrial Exchange Carriers......Page 725
Structure and Function Studies: The Use of Mutant Proteins......Page 726
Further Reading......Page 727
Functions of the Outer Membrane......Page 728
VDAC Function and Dynamics......Page 729
The Outer Membrane and Apoptosis......Page 730
Further Reading......Page 731
ERK1 and ERK2......Page 732
p38s (p38Alpha, p38Beta, p38Gamma, p38Delta)......Page 733
ERK5......Page 734
Specificity and Fidelity in Nuclear Signal Transmission by MAPK Signaling Pathways......Page 735
Further Reading......Page 736
Prophase......Page 738
Prometaphase......Page 739
Metaphase......Page 740
Anaphase......Page 741
Further Reading......Page 742
Sequences Upstream of the Poly A Site......Page 743
Cleavage Stimulation Factor......Page 744
Transcription Termination and Polyadenylation are Linked......Page 745
Glossary......Page 746
Further Reading......Page 747
Ribonucleases that Mediate mRNA Degradation in the Bacterium Escherichia coli......Page 748
The Degradosome, a Multiprotein Complex for RNA Degradation......Page 749
Polyadenylation Maintains the Momentum of mRNA Decay......Page 750
Decay Pathways Vary with the Position of the Initiating Cleavage......Page 751
Further Reading......Page 752
Mucin Subtypes......Page 753
Roles in Health and Diseases......Page 754
Major Nonmucin Domains in Secreted Mucins......Page 755
Secreted (Gel-Forming) Mucins......Page 757
See Also the Following Articles......Page 758
Further Reading......Page 759
Functions......Page 760
Expression......Page 762
Summary and Future Directions......Page 763
Further Reading......Page 764
Nucleotide Sequences......Page 765
Multiple Alignments......Page 766
Constructing Phylogenetic Trees......Page 767
Further Reading......Page 768
Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Second Messenger Pathways......Page 770
Regions of the mAChR Involved in Coupling to G Proteins......Page 771
Further Reading......Page 772
Evolutionary Diversity and Phylogenic Classification......Page 773
Mechano-Chemical Features and Regulation......Page 774
A Multitude of Cellular Functions......Page 775
Further Reading......Page 776




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