Imaging in Biological Research Part B, 1 ed. by P. Michael Conn



Bibliographic Information:
Title: Imaging in Biological Research Part B, 1 ed. by P. Michael Conn
Editor: P. Michael Conn
Edition: 1
Publisher: Academic Press
Length: 496 pages
Size: 6.91 MB
Language: English

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Table of Contents:
00 386mie_0121827917.jpg......Page 1
01 fm.pdf......Page 2
02 preface.pdf......Page 3
04 contributors.pdf......Page 4
Introduction......Page 7
MR Relaxation Mechanisms and the Basis of Contrast......Page 8
Intrinsic or Endogenous Contrast......Page 10
Extrinsic or Exogenous Contrast......Page 12
Low Molecular Weight Contrast Agents......Page 13
High Molecular Weight Contrast Agents......Page 22
Magnetic Resonance Detection of Cellular Targets......Page 25
Sensitivity and Typical Target Concentration......Page 26
T1 Contrast Agents......Page 27
T2 Contrast Agents......Page 30
MR Spectroscopy and Water Exchange......Page 33
Technical Strategies for MR Microscopy......Page 35
1H MRS......Page 43
13C MRS......Page 46
31P MRS......Page 50
31 PMRS......Page 53
1 HMRS......Page 54
MR Metabolic Boyden Chamber for Studying Cancer Cell Invasion......Page 55
Multinuclear MRI and MRSI of Preclinical Models of Cancer......Page 58
Acknowledgments......Page 64
Introduction......Page 65
Animal Models of Stroke......Page 66
Obtaining Animals and Supplies......Page 67
Physiologic Monitoring......Page 69
Transorbital Approach......Page 70
Vessel Occlusion......Page 71
Postoperative Monitoring......Page 72
Neurologic Evaluation......Page 74
Radiographic Imaging......Page 75
Model Application: HuEP5C7......Page 77
Conclusion......Page 78
Introduction......Page 79
Animal Models......Page 81
Kidney Model......Page 82
Heart and Lung Models......Page 84
Noninvasive Detection of Rejection with MRI by Monitoring USPIO-Labeled Immune Cells......Page 86
Dextran-Coated USPIO Particles for Cell Labeling and Tracking......Page 87
MRI Detection of Single Immune Cells in an In-Vitro System......Page 88
Monitoring the Accumulation of Immune Cells Labeled with USPIO Particles at Transplanted Organs In Vivo......Page 89
Monitoring Renal Function by MRI......Page 94
Monitoring Cardiac Function by MRI......Page 102
Summary and Future Perspectives......Page 110
Acknowledgments......Page 111
Introduction......Page 112
Intravital Microscopy and Animal Window Models......Page 113
Intravital Microscopy Imaging......Page 114
Tumor Vascular Length Density......Page 115
Hypoxia......Page 116
Imaging of Tumor-Host Interaction and Angiogenesis Initiation Using Fluorescent Protein-Labeled Tumor Cells......Page 117
Multiphoton Laser-Scanning Microscopy in Tumor Window Model......Page 119
Vascular Window Model for Arthritis Angiogenesis Studies......Page 122
Laser-Scanning Confocal Imaging of the Vascular System in Tie2–GFP Mice......Page 123
Corneal Angiogenesis Assay......Page 124
Intravascular Fluorescent Probes as Markers of Capillary Perfusion and Permeability......Page 125
Blood Flow Velocity Measurement in Living Animals......Page 127
Acknowledgments......Page 129
Introduction......Page 130
Patient Preparation......Page 131
Understanding the Basic Pulse Sequence......Page 132
Cine Gradient-Echo Imaging......Page 133
Assessment of Ventricular Function......Page 134
Assessment of Different Cardiomyopathies......Page 135
Dilated Cardiomyopathy......Page 136
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy......Page 137
Arrythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia......Page 138
Hemochromatosis......Page 140
Assessment of Myocardial Viability......Page 141
Assessment of Pericardial Disease......Page 143
Evaluation of Cardiac and Paracardiac Masses......Page 144
Evaluation of Congenital Heart Disease......Page 145
Evaluation of Valvular Diseases......Page 147
Evaluation of Aortic Diseases......Page 148
Evaluation of the Pulmonary Veins......Page 149
Evaluation of Myocardial Perfusion and Ischemia......Page 150
Coronary Artery Imaging......Page 153
Newer Applications......Page 155
Conclusion......Page 156
Biophysical Background and Methods......Page 157
T2 and T2 *......Page 158
Diffusion......Page 161
Diffusion Measurements......Page 163
Bolus Tracking......Page 164
Arterial Spin Labeling......Page 166
Magnetization Transfer Contrast......Page 169
Applications of MRI to Experimental Neuropathology......Page 171
ADC Changes Following a Stroke......Page 172
The Penumbra......Page 174
Spreading Depression......Page 175
Brain Reorganization Following Stroke......Page 176
Other MRI Contrast Mechanisms for Imaging Stroke......Page 177
Short-Term Changes......Page 178
Parkinson’s Disease......Page 179
Huntington’s Disease......Page 181
Multiple Sclerosis......Page 182
Conclusion......Page 184
Acknowledgments......Page 185
Introduction......Page 186
Bacterial Infections......Page 187
Bacterial Thigh Infection......Page 189
Pneumonia......Page 192
Ischemic Pathologies......Page 194
Permanent MCAO......Page 195
Neoplastic Pathologies......Page 198
Colon Carcinoma......Page 199
Lipid Accumulation in Metabolic-Degenerative Disorders......Page 204
Ob-Ob Mice......Page 206
Conclusions......Page 208
Introduction......Page 210
Lateral Fluid-Percussive Brain Injury......Page 212
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods and Analysis......Page 213
Locomotor Activity......Page 214
Forelimb Grip-Strength Test......Page 216
Rotametric Test......Page 217
Caspase-3 Immunohistochemistry......Page 218
In Situ Terminal Transferase d-UTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL)......Page 220
Acknowledgments......Page 221
Materials and Reagents......Page 222
General Methods......Page 223
Remarks......Page 224
Introduction......Page 227
Facing the Vascular Permeability Problem......Page 228
Endothelial-Targeted Imaging of Angiogenic Vessels......Page 229
Integrins as Vascular Targets......Page 230
Nanoparticles as Molecular Imaging Agents......Page 231
Design and Preclinical Studies of a Vascular-Targeted Molecular Imaging Agent......Page 232
PV Synthesis and Characterization......Page 233
ACPV Targeting in EAE Mice......Page 236
Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis......Page 238
Molecular Imaging and Vascular-Targeted Therapeutics......Page 240
Summary......Page 244
Introduction......Page 245
Production of Copper Radionuclides......Page 246
Production of 64Cu......Page 247
Production of 62Cu......Page 252
Properties of Copper Complexes for Radiopharmaceutical Applications......Page 253
Preparation of Select Tetraazamacrocyclic Bifunctional Chelators......Page 257
Radiochemistry of Copper-Labeled Tetraazamacyclic Bifunctional Chelators......Page 258
Radiolabeling Chelators with 64Cu......Page 259
Complex Charge Measurement......Page 260
Chemistry and Applications of 64Cu-Labeled BFC-Biomolecule Conjugates......Page 261
Chemistry of BFC-Peptide Conjugation......Page 263
Solid-Phase Synthesis of Somatostatin Analogues......Page 265
Radiolabeling of BFC-Peptide Conjugates......Page 266
Radiolabeling of BFC-Antibody Conjugates......Page 267
Immunoreactivity Determination of Antibody Conjugates......Page 268
Acknowledgments......Page 269
Introduction......Page 270
Selection of a Radionuclide and Chelating Agent......Page 271
Method......Page 277
Method......Page 278
Method......Page 279
Reagents......Page 280
Method for Immunoreactivity24......Page 281
PET Imaging......Page 282
Conclusion......Page 283
Introduction......Page 284
Cell Transplantation......Page 285
Superparamagnetic Iron Oxides......Page 287
Preparation of Magnetically Labeled Cells......Page 288
Use of Peptide- or Antibody-Coated SPIOs......Page 289
Use of Magnetodendrimers......Page 292
Use of Transfection Agent (TA)-Coated SPIOs......Page 297
Preparation of Feridex-PLL Complex......Page 299
Labeling of Hematopoietic Cells......Page 301
Magnetically Labeled Cells: Methods of Analysis......Page 304
Magnetically Labeled Cells: Detection Limits......Page 307
Acknowledgments......Page 308
Introduction......Page 309
Magnetic Resonance Techniques......Page 311
MR Imaging (MRI)......Page 312
MR Contrast Agents......Page 313
Monitoring Gene Delivery by MRI......Page 314
Imaging Gene Expression......Page 315
MRI and Gene Therapy Efficacy......Page 316
MRS and Gene Expression......Page 317
MRS and Gene Therapy Efficacy......Page 318
Acknowledgments......Page 319
Introduction......Page 320
Methods......Page 321
Physical Voxelation......Page 322
RNA Isolation and Quality Check......Page 323
Microarrays, RNA Labeling, and Hybridization......Page 324
Low-Level Analysis......Page 325
High-Level Analysis......Page 326
Image Reconstruction......Page 327
Acknowledgments......Page 329
Introduction......Page 330
The Neurophysiology Basis of the MR-ICP Method......Page 331
Intracranial Volume Change During the Cardiac Cycle......Page 334
MRI Measurements of CSF Flow, Total Cerebral Blood Flow, and Volume Change During the Cardiac Cycle......Page 335
MRI Measurements of the ICP Change During the Cardiac Cycle......Page 340
Validation Accuracy and Reproducibility of the ICVC Measurement......Page 342
Validation Accuracy and Reproducibility of the ICP Change Measurement......Page 346
Early Assessment of the MR-ICP Method Performance in Humans......Page 347
Application of MR-ICP to Study the Effect of Posture on Cerebral Hemodynamic Hydrodynamic Coupling......Page 349
Potential Clinical Role of the MR-ICP Method......Page 355
Current Development in Optical Methods for Vascular Hemoglobin Oxygenation......Page 357
Tumor Oxygenation as an Indicator for Tumor Response to Interventions......Page 360
Theory and Algorithms......Page 362
One-Channel and Multichannel NIR System......Page 365
Linearity Testing Associated with Crosstalk Between the Amplitude and Phase......Page 367
Blood Phantom Study......Page 368
Animal Models......Page 370
Fiber-Optic Fluorescence-Quenched Probe......Page 371
NIR Measurements of Breast-Prostate Tumors Under Interventions......Page 372
HbO and pO2 Changes in Breast Tumors Under Carbogen and Oxygen Intervention......Page 373
Tumor Heterogeneity Observed by a Multichannel NIRS System......Page 376
Mathematical Model Development to Interpret Data......Page 377
Discussions......Page 382
Conclusions......Page 385
Acknowledgments......Page 386
Significance of pO2 in Oncology......Page 387
Methods of Measuring Tumor Oxygenation......Page 389
19F NMR Approaches to Measuring pO2......Page 399
Route of Administration......Page 405
FREDOM (Fluorocarbon Relaxometry using Echo Planar Imaging for Dynamic Oxygen Mapping)......Page 407
Tumor Preparation......Page 409
Validation of Measurements......Page 418
Applications of FREDOM......Page 424
Future......Page 425
Acknowledgments......Page 427
x mie index.pdf......Page 428
x subject index.pdf......Page 450
xx author index.pdf......Page 459




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